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Articles by C.Y. Chan
Total Records ( 3 ) for C.Y. Chan
  C.H. Wu , Yen Zheng , W.H. Ip , Zhe-Ming Lu , C.Y. Chan and K.L. Yung
  Due to the explosion of data sharing on the internet and the massive use of digital media, especially digital images, there is great interest by image owners in copyright protection. The genetic watermarking methods were previously shown to optimize the conflicting requirements of robustness and invisibility. However, the genetic watermarking methods have limitation in considering perceptually significant or non-significant regions in the selection process, so they do not always offer better imperceptibility. In addition, the computational resource required by Genetic Algorithm (GA) is high when comparing it to other heuristic methods. Thus, the current study is focused on an optimization-based Dither Modulation watermarking scheme for digital images in a more efficient and effective manner. The watermark imperceptibility and robustness are taken into consideration at the same time. A hill climbing algorithm, which has a simple computational process, is employed for optimizing these two conflicting requirements. Since, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) may not be an effective imperceptibility measure presented previous genetic watermarking methods, Watson’s perceptual model is employed to quantify the watermarked image distortion as it is consistent with Human Visual System (HVS). Several commonly used watermarking attacks are considered in the optimization process. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is robust and more time efficient than the previous GA based methods.
  A.L. Ahmad and C.Y. Chan
  Malaysia is the largest producer of palm oil, the processing of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) has resulted large amount Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). The highly polluting POME is identified as the major stumbling block to the development of palm oil industry in Malaysia. Hence, an integrated membrane process with physical-chemical treatment had been successfully achieved for treatment of POME. The role of membrane was explored significantly; where the chemical treated POME was further treated using ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membrane. The concept of sustainable development in palm oil industries is achieved by recovering and recycling the crystal clear water and sludge as organic fertilizer from POME back to its process and plantations using the innovative membrane treatment. Consequently, zero discharge is achieved by eliminating the discharge of POME into the rivers.
  A.L. Ahmad , C.Y. Chan , S.R. Abd Shukor and M.D. Mashitah
  Carotenes is one of the most important vitamin A precursor in human nutrition which has numerous advantages. Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is wastewater which consists of carotenes in the oil and grease content. Therefore, adsorption chromatography is used to separate the carotenes from the oil and grease in POME. Several types of adsorbents, temperatures and mass loading were studied in the experiments. The 40°C and oil:adsorbent ratio of 1:5 was recommended to be the most suitable temperature and mass loading for separation of carotenes by adsorption chromatography. Silica gel also shows better quality of adsorbent in separation of carotenes in hexane fractions.
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