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Articles by C.U. Inyang
Total Records ( 6 ) for C.U. Inyang
  J.C. Anuonye , G.I.O. Badifu , C.U. Inyang , M.A. Akpapunam , C.U. Odumudu and V.I. Mbajika
  The effect of extrusion variables on the protein dispersibility index and tyrpsin inhibitor activity of blends of acha and soybean were studied using response surface analysis. Soybean flour was mixed with acha flour at 0, 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50% levels of substitution. Moisture content of the mixtures was adjusted to 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35%. Extrusion was carried out in a single screw Brabender extruder by adjusting the screw speed from 90 to 120, 150, 180 and 210 rpm and barrel temperature from 100 to 125, 150, 175 and 200°C following a 4-variable central composite rotatable response surface design. Protein dispersibility index and trypsin inhibitor activity of raw and extruded blends were evaluated. Raw acha, soybean flour and raw acha/soybean flour blends had PDI of 86.84, 91.84 and 74.27%, respectively compared to extrudate PDI which ranged from 3.77-8.70%. Blending decreased the protein dispersibility index of the raw flours while extrusion cooking significantly improved the protein dispersibility. For TIA, the results showed that TIA of extrudates ranged from 4.0-46.1 units, compared to the raw samples (64.5 units for raw soybean). The results showed that extrusion cooking reduced TIA by about (70.33-97.40%) with feed moisture and barrel temperature exerting the greatest influence on extrudate TIA. The decrease in TIA corresponded to increased protein dispersibility of extrudate samples.
  J.C. Anuonye , G.I.O. Badifu , C.U. Inyang and M.A. Akpapunam
  Acha and soybean flours were mixed in five ratios 100:0, 87.5:12.5, 75:25, 62.5:37.5 and 50:50% of acha and soy flour respectively. The moisture content of the blends was adjusted to 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35%. Extrusion was carried out using a Brabender single screw laboratory extruder following a four variable response surface analysis design where the extruder screw speed was adjusted from 90, 120, 150 and 180-210 rpm and barrel temperature from 100, 125, 150, 175-200°C. Amylose content and pasting properties of raw and extruded samples were evaluated. Results showed that increase in feed composition (acha flour) resulted in increased amylose content in the blend. Amylose content decreased with higher barrel temperatures while increased moisture levels of blend caused increased amylose levels in extruded products. The pasting characteristics showed that acha native starch had normal non-waxy starch pasting properties while blended and extrudate samples did not show any recognizable peaks which were indicative that blending and extrusion altered significantly the rheological properties of the extrudates. Extrusion processing reduced significantly (p<0.05) the peak viscosity, the peak time, the set back index, while, consistency index significantly (p<0.05) increased. The results showed that there was amylose content lowering indicative of significant (p<0.05) amylose-lipid complexing. The extrudates and blends would be ideal for weaning, convalescent and convenient food formulations.
  M.A. Igyor , C.C. Ariahu and C.U. Inyang
  The thermodynamics of heat destruction of Listeria monocytogenes in soymilk of varying initial pH (6.0-6.8) and sugar contents (0.5-10% w/v) were studied using kinetic parameters generated via the classical thermobacteriology assumption of a log-linear relationship between Listeria monocytogenes survivors and heating time (0.5-30 min at 50-65°C). The activation enthalpy (ΔH+), entropy (ΔS+), Energy (Ea) and frequency factor (k0) for the heat inactivation ranged, respectively, from about 275-302, 612-705 J/mol deg., 277-305 kJ/mol and 2.9x1043-2.0x1048 min-1 increasing with increases in initial sugar contents and acidity of soymilk. A kinetic compensation effect was observed for both ΔS+/ΔH+ and ln k0/Ea relationships with isokinetic temperature of 32.16x0.13°C and isokinetic destruction rate constant of 9.21x10-5 min-1 for the microbe in soymilk.
  B.D. Igbabul , H.O. Idikwu and C.U. Inyang
  Effect of fermentation on the proximate composition and functional properties of brown hamburger bean (Mucuna sloanei) and sweet detar seeds (Detarium microcarpum) was studied. Results showed that fermentation for a period of 72 h significantly (p≤0.05) increased the protein, moisture and crude fibre of the Mucuna sloanei flour while there was no difference of crude fat but significant decrease in ash and carbohydrate contents. Protein and crude fibre also increased significantly (p≤0.05) with fermentation of Detarium microcarpum whereas there was no significant difference in the moisture content and crude fat. Ash and carbohydrate also decreased significantly. It was observed that functional properties studies showed significant decrease as fermentation period increased in the two legumes. However, water absorption capacity, increased significantly (p≤0.05) over the period of fermentation for the two legumes investigated.
  C.U. Inyang and U.M. Zakari
  The study examined the effect of the germination and natural fermentation on the quality of instant "fura"-(a Nigerian cereal food). Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) seeds were soaked for 12 h at room temperature (32±2°C) and sprouted for 48h at the same temperature. The sprouted seeds were washed, dried and milled into flour. The flour was divided into two portions, the first was allowed to ferment naturally at room temperature for 48h and used to produce germinated and fermented fura (GFF). The second portion was used for the production of Germinated Fura (GF). The cleaned, ungerminated grains were milled and the flour also divided into two portions. The first portion was wetted, fermented and used to produce Fermented Fura (FF). The second portion was used to produce Traditional Fura (TF). Standard assay procedures were used to evaluate the fura samples for nutrient composition and phytic acid levels. Germination and fermentation increased the protein, ash, crude fibre, phosphorus, calcium and iron levels of the fura samples. The phytic acid levels were significantly reduced (p<0.05) compared with the control (220 mg/100 for GFF, 230 mg 100g-1 for GF, 266 mg 100g-1 for FF and 416 mg 100g-1 for the control, TF. The sensory panelists rated the fura sample from germinated grains highly for all the sensory parameters investigated. Germination appeared to be a promising food processing method for improving the nutrient and energy densities of fura and when combined with fermentation, reduced phytic acid significantly (p<0.05).
  O.J. Akinjogunla , C.U. Inyang and V.F. Akinjogunla
  The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial species associated with smoked and fresh Bonga (Ethmalosa fimbriata) sold at two different markets in Uyo using standard microbiological techniques and their susceptibility to antibiotics (cephalosporins) using Disc Diffusion Technique (DDT). The results of the bacteriological status of both fresh and smoked Bonga fish showed variations in the total bacterial and total coliform counts in different anatomical parts (skins, gills and intestine). The highest total bacterial counts was recorded from gills (9.2x105 cfug-1) and lowest in skin (4.3x105 cfug-1) in fresh bonga fish, while the highest total bacterial counts was obtained in intestine (7.7x104 cfug-1) and lowest in skin (3.1x104 cfug-1) in smoked Bonga fish. The total coliform counts of the fresh Bonga fish ranged from 3.3x102 to 4.1x103, 3.6x102 to 3.1x103 and 4.3x102 to 7.5x103 in skins, intestines and gills, respectively. In smoked fish, the skin had the lowest total coliform counts (1.5x102), while the highest coliform counts was obtained in gills (3.5x103). The prevalence of the Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Yersinia sp., Enterobacter sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus sp., Vibrio cholerae, Proteus sp., Shigella sp., Salmonella sp. and Campylobacter sp. isolated from both fresh and smoked fish samples varied depending on the anatomical parts. The results of antibiotic susceptibility showed that the bacteria isolated from both fresh and smoked fish were more sensitive to ceftazidime, cefoxitin and cefoperazone than cephalothin. However, both fresh and smoked Bonga fish could be carriers of pathogenic bacteria and a vehicle of transferring bacterial food borne infections and intoxication and cephalosporins may be the drugs of choice for the treatment.
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