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Articles by C.T. Madu
Total Records ( 5 ) for C.T. Madu
  O.A. Sogbesan , A.A.A. Ugwumba , C.T. Madu , S.S. Eze and J. Isa
  The potential of soil and agro-allied waste substrates in vermiculture was assessedin terms of their efficiency for growth, reproductive performance and zoomass production of cultured earthworms (Hyperiodrilus euryaulos). Four wooden boxes were stocked in duplicates with 50 matured H. euryaulos of average weight 1.94`0.2 g and cultured for 12 weeks. Harvested earthworms were dried, used to formulate five 42.5% isoproteic diets and 1900 kJ/100 g isocaloric diets and fed to fingerlings of Heterobranchus longifilis for 70 days. In both vermireactors, the earthworm grew very well with significantly different (p< 0.05) mean weight gain, 304.25 and 208.15 g ffom agro-allied and soil substrate respectively. Significantly (p< 0.05) higher specific growth rate of 0.73% day-1 and reproductive performance of 2,120 worms kg-1 of substrate were from agro-allied substrate compared to 0.59% day-1 and 1,914 worms kg-1 of substrate, respectively from soil substrate worms. The highest percentage weight gain, 400.5% fish-1 and specific growth rate of 0.999% day-1 were in fish fed control diet. The lowest feed conversion rate, 1.51; highest protein efficiency ratio, 1.52 and apparent net protein utilization, 52.48% were from 25% earthworm meal diet. The highest daily energy gain 3.34 kJ fish-1 day-1 was from the control diet. There was significant differences (p< 0.05) between the growth and feed utilization indices. Haematocrit level, haemoglobin concentration and leucocyte count improved with earthworm inclusion levels. The highest profit index, 9.33; lowest incidence of cost, 1.17 and highest cost benefit, 2.38 were from 25% earthworm meal diet. Based on results from this study agro-allied waste substrate could be a better culture substrate for H. euryaulosthan soil substrate and 7.5 to 25% earthworm meal inclusion is recommended in the diet of H. longifilis fingerlings for profitable and sustainable aquaculture practices.
  O.A. Sogbesan , C.T. Madu and A.A.A. Ugwumba
  Two hundred and forty Bufo maculata tadpoles of weight range 0.038-0.045 g (mean weight 0.04±0.008) g and lengths 1.2-1.6 cm (mean 1.4±0.018 cm) were randomly selected from a breeding tanks (2.0H 2.0H1.0 m) and raised in outdoor concrete culture tanks (1.0H1.0H0.75 m) for 84 days and monitored for growth, productivity and nutrient utilization. Tadpole were harvested, processed into meal and used in compounding five experimental diets of 42.5% crude protein to replace fish meal at different inclusion levels of 0% (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100% fed to Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings. The mean weight gain for cultured tadpole was 3.16 g/tadpole; specific growth rate 2.21% and feed conversion ratio, 1.04. The result of the feeding experiment shows that WG, RGW, SGR, FCR and feed intake favoured fingerlings fed 50 and 25% whole tadpole meal inclusion diets with insignificant difference p< 0.05 compared to other treatments. Highest insignificant difference p< 0.05 apparent crude protein digestibility of 90.88% was in 25% whole tadpole meal. Better cost benefit ratio was reported in 25 and 50% whole tadpole meal diets. Based on the result of this study, the replacement of tadpole meal is recommended to 50% inclusion levels in the diet of H. longifilis for better growth performance, feed utilization, health status and cost benefits.
  J.C. Nnaji , C.T. Madu and A. Raji
  An experiment was conducted between August and November, 2008 at Wuya-Bida to determine the profitability of integrating fish culture into rice farming. Two treatments (mono-rice and rice-fish) in triplicate were used. The area of each plot was 144 m2 and the mono-rice plots consisted of only rice farming while the rice-fish plots had rice farming incorporated with the raising of Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. The fish were fed with compounded feed and wheat offal and at the end of the experimental period of 60 days, O. niloticus fingerlings had a mean weight gain of 47.60±1.86 g in the rice-fish plots while C. gariepinus fingerlings had a mean weight gain of 110.80±2.92 g. C. gariepinus fingerlings performed better than O. niloticus fingerlings. Values for physicochemical parameters showed that both pH and dissolved oxygen were outside the favourable limits (pH: 6.5-9, DO: >5 mg L-1) recommended for warm water aquaculture in the rice-fish plots. Cost-benefit analysis showed that the integration of fish into the rice system confers substantial profitability on the system going from the production, total and net income differences between mono-rice and rice-fish plots. However, cost-benefit ratio of the mono-rice plots was slightly better than that of the rice-fish plots.
  A.O. Sogbesan , A.A.A. Ugwumba and C.T. Madu
  In the present study 60 Adult Earthworms (H. euryaulos) of weight and length range 1.7-3.0 g (mean-2.34±0.91 g) and 13.0-28.0 cm (mean-21.5±5.8 cm), respectively were cultured for 12 weeks. The productivity potential and nutrient composition of earthworm (H. euryaulos) cultured in two rearing substrata (Cellulose Substrate (Control) - Coded Hs1 and Dry Neem and leaves and soil Substrate - Coded Hs2) were assessed using six wooden boxes stocked in triplicates at the rate of 92.7 g earthworms per box. The higher total final weight, weekly weight gain, relative growth rate, specific growth rate and survival of 400.6 g kg-1 of substrate, 25.7 g/week/substrate, 332.5, 0.76/day and 99.0% while the lower of 367.5 g kg-1 of substrate, 22.9 g/week, 296.4, 0.71/day and 98.0% were recorded in earthworm cultured in cellulose substrate and the soil substrate respectively. The proximate analyses, mineral compositions and amino acids indices were comparable to those of conventional fish meal. Based on the results of this study, the utilization of cellulose substrate is recommended for the culture of earthworm and the inclusion of the earthworm meal is guarantee as a reliable and nutritional dependable fish meal supplement.
  O.A. Sogbesan and C.T. Madu
  Isoproteic and isoenergetic diets containing 0% (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100% dried earthworm meal were fed to 250 fingerlings of Heterobranchus longifilis of weight range 2.35-3.03 g and average weight 2.68`0.29 g for 56 days experimental period. The results of the experiment showed that the water quality parameters were not affected as the inclusion level of the earthworm meal increased. The growth rates were not similar. The highest mean weight gain of 6.45 g fish-1, relative growth rate of 240.67%/fish and specific growth rate of 0.9507%/fish were recorded in fish fed 25% earthworm inclusion diet. The lowest feed conversion rate of 1.51, highest protein efficiency ratio and productive protein value of 1.52 and 52.48, respectively were also recorded in fish fed 25% earthworm meal inclusion diet. The highest energy retention of 1.04 and lowest of 0.50 were recorded from 100% earthworm meal inclusion diet and the control, respectively. The lowest feed production cost of 56.32 k kg-1 of feed, lowest incidence of cost, 1.71 and highest profit index, 9.33 were recorded from fish fed 100% earthworm meal inclusion diet. Based on the result from this experiment 25% replacement of fish meal by earthworm meal is recommended in the diet of H. longifilis fingerlings for profitable and sustainable aquaculture practices.
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