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Articles by C.S. Sharma
Total Records ( 4 ) for C.S. Sharma
  Bhupander Kumar , R. Gaur , G. Goel , Meenu Mishra , Dev Prakash , S.K. Singh , R.B. Lal , Sanjay Kumar and C.S. Sharma
  A study was conducted to assess the levels of organic pollutants i.e. organochlorine pesticides, (OCPs), organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) and herbicides, in sediments from nine major municipal drains in Delhi, India. Sediment samples from Delhi’s municipal drains were extracted with acetone/dichloromethane (1:1v/v) and analyzed using GC and HPLC. The average concentration of ∑OCPs, ∑OPPs and ∑herbicides was 27.26±9.7 ng g-1 (dry wt.), 80.89±22.4 ng g-1 (dry wt.) and 16.20±4.45 ng g-1(dry wt.), respectively. Among OCPs ∑HCH alone accounts 63% followed by ∑DDT (16%), ∑endosulphan (13%) and drins 8%. The ratio of p,p’-DDT/∑DDT (0.23), p,p’-DDT/p,p’-DDE (0.26) and o,p’-DDT/p,p’-DDT (<0.01) indicates the aged mixture or past usage of DDT and no dicofol type DDT. Among OPPs Chlorpyriphos was the dominant pollutant with 89% of total OPPs. Pendimethalin accounts 77% of total herbicides followed by Butachlor (14%) and Alachlor (9%). The level of herbicides, OCPs and OPPs in this study were compared with Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines, Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG) and Probable Effect Level (PEL) and found much lower than fresh water sediment guideline values. However, it is recommended that regular intensive assessment for persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals to be conducted, due to environmental concerns.
  C.S. Sharma , S.K. Williams and G.E. Rodrick
  Sodium Metasilicate (SMS) is a USDA approved antimicrobial and has been shown to be inhibitory towards various foodborne pathogens in refrigerated raw poultry and beef trimmings. The objectives of this study were to determine the antimicrobial effects of SMS against Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat turkey ham and to ascertain effects of various treatments on pH. Ready-to-eat turkey ham slices were inoculated with L. monocytogenes, treated with either 0% SMS (only sterile de-ionized water) and no inoculum (negative control), 0% SMS (only sterile de-ionized water) and inoculum (positive control) and 6% SMS solution with final concentration of 300 ppm and 600 ppm of SMS in turkey ham samples plus inoculum. In each treatment, the turkey ham samples were vacuum-packaged and stored at 4±1°C. All samples were analyzed on day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of storage for presence of L. monocytogenes and pH. The use of 6% SMS solution at 300 and 600 ppm concentrations was not effective in reducing L. monocytogenes populations (p>0.05) in turkey ham and pH values were similar (p>0.05) for all treatments from d 0 to d 28. The findings from this study suggested that SMS is ineffective in reducing L. monocytogenes in turkey ham, at the currently approved levels and higher concentrations of SMS may be needed to restrict growth of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat poultry products.
  M. Cadet , S.K. Williams , A. Simonne and C.S. Sharma
  The pH, objective color and antimicrobial efficacy of Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Swartz Flower Extract (GFE) in a ready-to-eat turkey ham product inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Ham treatments included positive control (inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus cocktail only), 0.5% GFE incorporated into meat batter prior to cooking, 1.0% GFE incorporated into meat batter prior to cooking, 0.5% GFE applied to surface of cooked ham after cooled and 1.0% GFE applied to surface of cooked ham after cooled. All samples were inoculated after cooking, then vacuum packaged, stored at 4±1°C for 28 days and analyzed at 1-week intervals. Galangal flower extract exhibited antimicrobial properties and resulted in reductions (p>0.05) of up to 1.00 log cfu/g in S. aureus and L. monocytogenes when compared to the inoculated control. Galangal extract had no adverse effects on objective color and pH.
  S. Mart , S.K. Williams and C.S. Sharma
  The comparison of antimicrobial properties of sodium metasilicate (SMS) to conventional chlorine applications in pre and postchill processing of poultry was evaluated. Fresh broiler chicken breast skin was cut aseptically into 5x5 cm portions and treated with either water only (negative control), inoculum+water (positive control, 107 cfu/mL of Salmonella Typhimurium), inoculum +50 ppm chlorine solution, inoculum +2% SMS solution, inoculum +2% SMS solution followed by 50 ppm chlorine solution (prechill), or inoculum +50 ppm chlorine solution followed by 2% SMS solution (postchill) and analyzed after 0 and 24 h storage at 4°C for Salmonella spp., total plate count and pH. Sodium metasilicate postchill treatment reduced aerobic plate counts at 0 and 24 h by 2.97 and 5.31 logs, respectively and Salmonella spp. counts at 0 and 24 h by 5.82 and 6.47 logs, respectively. The data revealed that SMS was most effective as postchill treatment. This research revealed the possibility of sodium metasilicate being used as an antimicrobial intervention in poultry chill tanks to control Salmonella.
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