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Articles by C.R. Saad
Total Records ( 14 ) for C.R. Saad
  M. Rozihan , B.A. John , C.R. Saad and K.C.A. Jalal
  The effect of partial and complete substitution of fishmeal (FM) for Soy Bean Meal (SBM) on the growth and survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were studied. Post larvae (PL 28) with an average individual length (16.20±0.20 mm) and weight (0.032±0.002 g) were stocked in aquarium filled with 5.0 L of water for a period of eight weeks. Six types of diets with different percentage of FM:SBM ratios were formulated and fed to the test animals at the ratio of 0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20, 100:0 (diet 1-6, respectively). Significant differences in terms of body weight and orbital length of animal were observed between diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and diets 1 and 6. Larvae fed with diet 3 produced the highest mean weight gain 0.711 g. There was no significant difference in weight gain observed in experiment provided with diet 2, 4 and 5 (~0.4-0.5 g). Larvae fed with diet 1 and 6 showed less weight gain (~0.2 g) with highest percentage of survival (70%) in diet 6 experimental tank. Food Conversion Ratio (FCR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) were also calculated for each experimental diets besides analyzing their proximate composition. It can be concluded that soy bean (diet 3) could be used for the better growth of M. rosenbergii post larvae. It was also understood that complete removal or absolute utilization of fish meal (100%) in diet would directly affect the weight gain in fresh water prawn (p<0.05).
  A. Sheikhlar , A.R. Alimon , H.M. Daud and C.R. Saad
  Methanol extract of Morus alba Foliage (MFE) was studied to evaluate its effect on hematological parameters and liver histology of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The trial consisted of five diets preparation, i.e., control diet (diet 1) and four tested diets supplemented, respectively with 2 g MFE kg-1 (MFE-2), 5 g MFE kg-1 (MFE -5), 7 g MFE kg-1 (MFE -7) and 9 g MFE kg-1 (MFE -9) of Dry Matter (DM) diet. Results showed fish fed with MFE-5 and MFE-7 diets had (p<0.05) the highest RBC counts, Hb content, albumin and total protein levels among other dietary groups while MFE-9 showed the poorest RBC, albumin and total protein. Histological study indicated that fish received MFE-9 diet showed minor degenerative changes in the liver. In conclusion, methanol extract of Morus alba at 7 g kg-1 of diet has no adverse impact on hematology and liver’s histology in African catfish.
  A. Sheikhlar , A.R. Alimon , H.M. Daud , C.R. Saad and H. Shanagi
  In the present study, the effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum seed (fenugreek), Citrus limon peel (lemon) and Morus alba foliage (mulberry) against two Gram- negative bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli and two Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated and the phytochemical compounds of the tested herbal extracts were determined. The results indicated that the aqueous extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum seed and Citrus limon peel revealed weak antibacterial activity against the bacteria. The methanol extracts of all herbs exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogens. Among the entire methanol extracts, the Morus alba had the strongest activities. Aeromonas hydrophila was the most sensitive microorganism tested. The phytochemical screening of the plants showed the presence of secondary metabolites such as phenols, volatile oils, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoid, terpenoids and alkaloids.
  M. Ebrahimnezhadarabi , C.R. Saad , S.A. Harmin , M.K. Abdul Satar and A.A. Kenari
  The aim of the study was to determine the influence of dietary phospholipids (PL) levels on growth and body composition of beluga (Huso-huso) juveniles. Huso-huso juveniles were fed with an isonitrogenous (45% crude protein (CP)) and isoenergetic (18.00 kJ g-1) formulated diet with four levels of PL, 0, 2, 4 and 6%. The fish were then acclimated to laboratory conditions and fed with a commercial fish feed for 14 days. After acclimation, groups of 60 Huso huso fingerling (mean weight 4.5 g) were randomly stocked into the 12 circular fiberglass tanks. The results showed that during the feeding trials in (56 days), growth performance was high at 4% phospholipids groups. There were significant different (p<0.05) for Condition Factor (CF) fish fed diet D4 had a value of 0.38 followed by fish fed diet D1, D2 and D3 had CF value of 0.47, 0.43 and 0.42, respectively. Weight gain (%) and survival (%) had significant difference (p<0.05) but no significant differences were found for final weight, Feed Conversion Rate (FCR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Lipid Efficiency Ratio (LER), (p>0.05). Significant differences were showed in moisture and protein composition of treatments (p<0.05) but no significant effect (p>0.05) on the fat and ash composition in fish were observed.
  M. Jafari , M.S. Kamarudin , C.R. Saad , A. Arshad , S. Oryan and M.H.T. Guilani
  The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different diets on Caspian kutum larval growth, survival and body composition, thus the Caspian kutum was examined in diets, Starved (S), Egg yolk (E), Artemia nauplii (A) and Artemia nauplii plus egg yolk (A+E). Totally four dietary treatments were tested in triplicate for 30 days. A significant growth difference between fry fed was observed in Artemia plus egg yolk (p<0.05). Final mean lengths and weights for each treatment (S, A, E, A+E), respectively were 7.0±0.07, 26±0.91, 23.5±0.91, 28.6±0.18 mm (Mean±SE, n = 12) and 4.9±0.08, 57±2.14, 51±2.18, 74±3.64 mg (Mean±SE, n = 12). The larvae accumulated increasing protein in Treatment A+E and lipid in treatment E (p<0.05). Also, the highest survival rate, 70.9±2.1%was in the treatment A+E and was significantly higher compared to 59.5±1.45% and 56.6±0.98%and in the other group (p<0.05). During culture period some other factors such as DGC (Daily Growth Coefficient), DWG (Daily Weight Gain), DLG (Daily Length Gain) and SGR (Specific Growth factor Rate) were measured. The obtained result showed that diet Artemia plus egg yolk is promising for use in Caspian kutum culture for in early stages of life cycle.
  S.A. Hosseini , C.R. Saad , M.S. Bourani , H.M. Daud , S.A. Harmin , H. Zokaei Far and H. Abdi
  Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of weight on the ionic regulation ability of reared Rutilus frisii kutum fingerlings during adaptation to the seawater and downstream migration. Accordingly, the ionic regulation ability of Cl-, K+, Na+ and Mg2+ in kutum fingerlings with weights of 1, 3, 5 and 7 g in three different salinities, that is 13‰ (the Caspian Sea salinity), 7‰ (estuarine area) and fresh water (as control, 0.3-0.5‰), were assessed. The blood samples were provided before being transferred as control (fresh water) and during adaptation to the sea and estuary water in a period of up to 336 h by a pooling method. The measurements of ions were carried out for blood serum Na+ and K+ and alsoplasma Cl-1 and Mg2+ by photometric methods. This investigation showed that ionic regulatory ability of kutum fingerlings depends on their weights. Results of ionic changes during the duration of 336 h (14 days) proved that unlike kutum fingerling with weights of 3, 5 and 7 g, the ionic regulation system in 1 g fingerlings were not able to expel excess ions. Further 1 g kutum were not physiologically ready (smolt) for downstream migration.
  I. Zalina , C.R. Saad , A.A. Rahim , A. Christianus and S.A. Harmin

Anabas testudineus was successfully induced to spawn using LHRHa. Egg production, hatching rate and GSI were 5126 eggs/fish, 62 and 10.41%, respectively. Results showed that the survival and growth of A. testudineus during the 30-day nursing period were stocking density dependent. The highest survival rate was recorded in T1 (35/L; 75%), followed by T2, (55/L; 53%) and lastly T3 (75/L; 43%). The weekly growth performance in T1 (35/L), in terms of total body length and body weight was significantly better than other treatments, especially after 21-day of nursing. Fish larvae were fed with a combination of live and prepared foods. Water quality parameters were stable and not influenced by the stocking densities tested.

  A. Sheikhlar , A.R. Alimon , H. Daud , C.R. Saad and E. Ramezani- Fard
  Methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta was tested in in vivo experiment to investigate the effect on hematological and biochemical indices and histological changes of liver in the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The plant methanol extract was included in the feed and administered to the fish. The experiment was conducted for eight weeks and with five diets including control (E. hirta-0), 2 (E. hirta-2), 5(E. hirta-5), 7(E. hirta-7) and 9(E. hirta-9) g E. hirta kg-1 of dry matter diet. Fish fed the E. hirta-9 diet had lowest (p<0.05) RBC and TP compared with the other dietary groups. Histological analyses revealed this group (E. hirta-9) had histopathologic alterations in the liver. Results of this study indicated that methanol extract of E.hirta by 7 g kg-1 can be safely used to improve hematological indices of African catfish without any adverse effect on the liver.
  H. Abdi , A. Christianus , E. Ramezani- Fard , C.R. Saad and S.A. Hosseini
  Catfish species are popular fish group consumed in Malaysia. African catfish, Clarias gariepinus and Asian redtail catfish, Hemibagrus nemurus are two of these catfish species. Unfortunately, some parts of these fish are removed during processing. This includes the liver which contained considerable amount of extractable lipid with both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fish samples were purchased and transported in ice box to the laboratory. Liver was extracted and analyzed for crude protein, crude lipid, moisture, ash, carbohydrate contents and fatty acid composition. Results were compared between male and female C. gariepinus and H. nemurus. Liver of female H. nemurus contained the highest amount of ash, crude lipid and carbohydrate and the lowest amount of moisture. Male H. nemurus had the lowest amount of protein, ash and crude lipid content. Moisture was found to be the highest in male C. gariepinus. The main fatty acid content of Asian redtail catfish and African catfish liver were C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C18:0, C18:1n-9, C182n-6, C183n-3, C204n-6, C24:1, C205n-3, C225n-3, C226n-3. The most abundant fatty acids in both species were oleic acid (18:1n-9) and palmitic acid (16:0). In conclusion, this study showed that H. nemurus and C. gariepinus, are two valuable source of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acid.
  N.A. Muhammad , A. Christianus , S.K. Daud , C.R. Saad , S.A. Harmin and M.Y. Ina-Salwany
  Vitellogenin (vtg) is a high molecular weight glycophospholipoprotein synthesized in the liver under stimulation of estrogen. Basically found in sexually mature female, vtg being taken up by developing oocyte during maturation. It functioned as a nutrient storage for growing embryo. Having potential to be used as a maturation indicator, vtg helps to enhance fish fry production. Tor tambroides is one of the most sought after fish in Malaysia for having potential as a game fish yet so important economically due to high demand by farmers as well as consumers. Main problem in the mass production of T. tambroides fry in hatchery is in the availability and selection of matured broodstock. Identification of matured and ready females morphologically can only be done by experience workers. Therefore, establishment of simple technique to definite identify matured females is necessary. This has led to the identification, purification and development of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure blood plasma vtg as maturation indicator. This will definitely contribute to the hatchery production of T. tambroides fry.
  J.C. Teh , M.S. Kamarudin , A. Abd Rahim and C.R. Saad
  The understanding of appetitive and foraging behavior of medicinal leeches is important for successful breeding and culture of healthy leeches. This study was conducted to determine the response of Asian buffalo leech, Hirudinaria manillensis for combinations of selected chemical compounds. Five solutions with different combinations of sodium chloride, arginine, glycine and glucose were filled into rubber sacs and fed to the leeches in 3 replicates each. Heparinized cattle blood was used as the control. The percentages of leech that approached the sacs and the average volume consumed per individual were estimated. After feeding, the survival of leeches in each treatment was monitored daily for seven days. The results showed that a solution containing 150 mM sodium chloride, 1 mM L-arginine, 50 mM glycine and 1 mg mL-1 glucose gave significantly higher (p<0.05) approach percentage and feed consumption than other solutions. Its performance was equivalent to the cattle blood. Poor feeding consumption was observed when only L-arginine or glycine were added to the saline solution. Nevertheless, mortality up to 40% was observed among the feeding leeches while the survival of non-feeding leeches was nearing or at 100%.
  I. Zalina , C.R. Saad , A. Christianus and S.A. Harmin
  This study described the induced breeding and embryonic stage of Anabas testudineus using commercial hormone LHRHa with the intensity level of 2, 20, 200 μg kg-1 of body weight, respectively. It was found that all intensity of LHRHa hormone level could enhance the fish to breed with the exception of the control group. Fertilization rate, hatching rate, latency period, fecundity, oocytes diameter and GSI were quantified in each set of experiment. It was observed that the fertilised eggs of A. testudineus were almost spherical in shape, clear pearl likes in appearance and free floating on water surface. Fecundity and GSI were significantly higher in fish treated with 200 μg kg-1 as compared to fish treated with 2 and 20 μg kg-1 of body weight of LHRHa hormone. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect between hormone level on fertilization rate, hatching rate and eggs diameter. The diameters of fertilised eggs ranged from 800-850 μm. The first cleavage occurred at 1:30 h, epiboly began at 5 h, the embryonic body was formed at 12 h and hatching occurred at 20 h after fertilization at water temperature of 26°C. Newly hatched larvae were approximately 0.6-1 mm (total length) and pigment spots were present over the yolk and head. The embryonic development of the fish is described. The present study indicated that the administration of LHRHa hormone is effective for ovulation and hormone level at 2 μg kg-1 is recommended.
  Efrizal , A. Arshad , M.S. Kamarudin , C.R. Saad and S.M.N. Amin
  This study was carried out to observe and describe sexual dimorphism, reproductive system, macroscopic and histological gonad development and Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) of blue swimming crab (P. pelagicus) during post-spawning, spent spawner and berried female under laboratory conditions. The general sex dimorphism and reproductive system of male and female blue swimming crab were observed similar to be most other decapods crustaceans. The pubertal molt, the abdomen and gonopores of female show changes that are generally accepted as external morphological indications of sexual maturity. Unlike female, the males show prepubertal (loosing of the attachment of the abdominal flap to the cephalothorax) rather than pubertal molt. The ovaries and testes were classified into five and three development stages and the ovarian histology of each stage was characterized. The ovarian stages correlated closely with the Gonado Somatic Index (GSI), the characteristics of ovarian histology and oviposition period.
  A. Syahidah , C.R. Saad , M.D. Hassan , Y. Rukayadi , M.H. Norazian and M.S. Kamarudin
  Background and Objective: The problems of bacterial diseases in aquaculture are primarily controlled by antibiotics. Medicinal plants and herbs which are seemed to be candidates of replacements for conventional antibiotics have therefore gained increasing interest. Current study was performed to investigate the presence of phytochemical constituents, antibacterial activities and composition of antibacterial active compounds in methanolic extract of local herb, Piper betle . Methodology: Qualitative phytochemical analysis was firstly carried out to determine the possible active compounds in P. betle leaves methanolic extract. The antibacterial activities of major compounds from this extract against nine fish pathogenic bacteria were then assessed using TLC-bioautography agar overlay assay and their quantity were determined simultaneously by HPLC method. Results: The use of methanol has proved to be successful in extracting numerous bioactive compounds including antibacterial compounds. The TLC-bioautography assay revealed the inhibitory action of two compounds which were identified as hydroxychavicol and eugenol. The $-caryophyllene however was totally inactive against all the tested bacterial species. In this study, the concentration of hydroxychavicol in extract was found to be 374.72±2.79 mg g–1, while eugenol was 49.67±0.16 mg g–1. Conclusion: Based on these findings, it could be concluded that hydroxychavicol and eugenol were the responsible compounds for the promising antibacterial activity of P. betle leaves methanolic extract. This inhibitory action has significantly correlated with the amount of the compounds in extract. Due to its potential, the extract of P. betle leaves or it compounds can be alternative source of potent natural antibacterial agents for aquaculture disease management.
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