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Articles by C.N. Ezekiel
Total Records ( 3 ) for C.N. Ezekiel
  A.A. Ogunnowo , C.N. Ezekiel , C.P. Anokwuru , Y.A. Ogunshola and O.O. Kuloyo
  The possibility of producing a highly competitive water-soluble hard soap fortified with O. gratissimum extract (Ts) which will inhibit the growth and activity of Candida and staphylococci was investigated in comparison to a commercial standard soap (Ss) and the control soap without an extract (Cs). The standard agar well diffusion method and broth micro-dilution assay technique were used for the antimicrobial potency determination of the soap samples and Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) respectively. The pH range of the soap samples was 9.8-10.2 ±0.2. Ts had clear forest green coloration as compared to the creamy appearance of Ss and Cs. The moisture content (%), foamability (cm) and total fatty matter (%) values for Ts were 19.7±0.02, 13.4±0.03 and (10.0±0.01), respectively. The inhibitory activity of soap fortified with O. gratissimum against all Candida sp. and Staphylococci was significant over Cs but insignificant towards Ss (p<0.05). The sensitivity values (mm) for C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and the staphylococci to Ts ranged between 9.5±0.02-23.1±0.01, 8.7±0.00-21.5±0.02 and 6.5±0.01-26.5±0.02, respectively, as compared to their low sensitivity to Cs, (6.2±0.01-17.0±0.00), (6.5±0.01-15.8±0.00) and (6.2±0.01-18.0±0.00), respectively. The MIC was 0.0312 and 0.0156 g mL-1 for the Ss and Cs and Ts, respectively for all isolates (Candida and staphylococci). On an overall, Ts was highly comparable with Ss as compared to the Cs in terms of general acceptability, texture and fragrance and other analyzed parameters.
  O.A. Alabi , C.P. Anokwuru , C.N. Ezekiel , O. Ajibaye , U.J. Nwadike , O. Fasasi and M. Abu
  The discovery and exploration of compounds possessing anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties are of great importance. This study investigated the anti-mutagenic and anti-genotoxic effect of ethanolic neem extract on dietary-aflatoxin induced genotoxicity. The assays used were: micronucleus (MN) and sperm morphology assays. Nine groups of mice labeled A-I were exposed to dietary-aflatoxin for three weeks after which they were treated with ethanolic neem extract. One week of 0.5 mL intraperitoneal injection of 25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 b.wt. neem extract were administered in one, two and three doses daily for groups A-C, D-F and G-I, respectively. Three weeks aflatoxin feed mice and mice with no aflatoxin/neem extract exposure were used as controls 1 and 2, respectively. The three weeks dietary-aflatoxin induced a statistically significant (p<0.05) MN and sperm morphology compared to control 2. The three concentrations utilized reduced the genotoxic effects of dietary-aflatoxin on MN and abnormal sperm morphology assay in a concentration-dependent manner. Higher concentrations of 50 and 100 mg kg-1 b.wt. completely reversed the induced genotoxicity. Neem extract is identified with possible anti-mutagenic and anti-genotoxic potential in this study and should be further studied as a natural source of antimutagenic agent for humans.
  C.N. Ezekiel , C.P. Anokwuru , E. Nsofor , O.A. Odusanya and O. Adebanjo
  The antimicrobial activity of methanolic leaf extracts and crude alkaloid extracts of A. wilkesiana cv. macafeeana was evaluated after a preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaf extracts. The standard agar well diffusion method was used in the bioassay involving test bacteria and yeast isolates, while percentage inhibition of extracts on radial growths of the molds was determined. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) and Minimal Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) were also determined by the broth microdilution assay technique. The microorganisms used were clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus pyogenes, Strept. pneumonia, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), non-methicillin resistant Staph. aureus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus. Alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides were extracted by the methanol solvent. The crude alkaloid extracts inhibited only the Gram-negative bacteria with mean inhibition zones of 10.0±0.00 to 12.3±0.03 mm while the methanol extracts inhibited all other test organisms, a broad spectrum activity. The water extracts had no activity against the non-MRSA strains. The MIC was 0.4 mg mL-1 for all unicells except strains of C. albicans which both had MICs of 0.8 mg mL-1. The MBC was 0.4 mg mL-1 for tested isolates except the non-MRSA and C. albicans which had MBCs of >12.0 mg mL-1 and 1.0 mg mL-1, respectively. The methanolic extract totally inhibited all tested aspergilli while the water extract had a varying inhibitory effect (63.0±2.50 to 81.0±2.90%) on the tested fungi strains. The alkaloid had no effect on the molds.
 
 
 
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