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Articles by C.M. Pixley
Total Records ( 3 ) for C.M. Pixley
  S.N. Henderson , J.L. Vicente , C.M. Pixley , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  Chicks are commonly held for up to 72 h from the time of actual hatch to placement under commercial industry practices. Delaying access to feed and water has been documented to increase susceptibility to pathogens and weight loss, leading to poorly starting flocks with reduced weight gains. Seven experiments were conducted to compare the use of EarlyBird™ (EB; Sigrah-Zellet, LLC.) to no supplementation (NS) in chick boxes when chicks were held for a 24 h simulated shipping period. In each experiment, broilers were obtained from a commercial hatchery, neck tagged, individually weighed, and randomly placed in boxes of 100 chicks. Treated chicks received 2 g/chick of EB. Following 24 h, chicks were individually weighed and placed with feed and water ad libitum. In all experiments, chicks that received EB during simulated shipping experienced significantly less body weight loss during the 24 holding period (p<0.05) and were significantly heavier at 7 d. At slaughter, EB treated broilers were 58 g heavier than the controls. The results are consistent with earlier reports indicating that the dependence of chicks on residual yolk sac during the first few days post hatch limits the growth potential of modern broilers. Early feeding can not only impact the general well being of the chick but also can have significant effects on early growth, leading to increased weight gains that persist through broiler production.
  A.D. Wolfenden , J.L. Vicente , L.R. Bielke , C.M. Pixley , S.E. Higgins , D.J. Donoghue , A.M. Donoghue , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  Effective Competitive Exclusion (CE) cultures have been shown to accelerate development of normal microflora in chicks and poults, providing increased resistance to infection by some enteric bacterial pathogens. Our objective was to develop a CE culture for prophylaxis and reduced horizontal transmission of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in broiler chickens. In the present study, seven members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and 2 lactic acid bacteria isolates, each capable of in vitro and in vivo inhibition of SE, were selected and combined to form the putative CE culture. In the first experiment, day-of-hatch chicks were randomly divided into four pens. All treated chicks were orally gavaged with the CE culture and 3 pens were treated with the CE culture in the drinking water for four consecutive days. Treated and control-non treated chicks were challenged with SE on day 4. All 3 groups of birds that were treated with the CE culture had a significant decrease (p<0.05) in cecal colonization compared with non-CE-treated SE-challenged chicks. Two additional experiments were designed to measure the efficacy of the CE culture in reducing SE horizontal transmission from infected to uninfected chicks when commingled. SE was recovered in the cecal tonsils with a significantly lower incidence at days 7 and 14 in Experiment 2 and day 7 in Experiment 3 from the groups that received the CE in the drinking water as compared to controls respectively. These results suggest that a relatively simple and defined CE culture can reduce SE colonization in neonatal chicks.
  A.D. Wolfenden , C.M. Pixley , J.P. Higgins , S.E. Higgins , B.M. Hargis , G. Tellez , J.L. Vicente and A. Torres-Rodriguez
  Spray application offers low-cost and efficient application of biologic and reduced concerns regarding diverse water quality and medicator/proportioner function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the spray application of a Lactobacillus-based probiotic on Salmonella enteritidis (SE) colonization in broiler chickens. Day-of-hatch chicks were challenged with Salmonella enteritidis (SE) by oral gavage alone, challenged with SE and treated by coarse spray application of a commercially-availably Lactic-acid bacterial probiotic (FM-B11™), or challenged with SE and treated with B11 continuously in the Drinking Water (DW). Five days post-challenge, cecal tonsils were collected for presence or absence of SE. In Exp. 1, probiotic treatment by either spray or DW application significantly (p<0.05) reduced SE recovery (55% and 50% respectively; controls 85%) when chicks were held for 8h prior to challenge and placement. Similarly, when probiotic spray treatment or water treatment and challenge occurred simultaneously, with placement 8h after treatment, a marked and significant reduction of SE recovery was noted after 5d (10% and 40% respectively, controls 55%). In Exp. 2, when probiotic spray treatment and challenge occurred simultaneously, with placement 8h after treatment, a significant reduction of SE recovery was again noted in both the spray and DW application (80% controls, 15% spray, 15% DW). Taken together, these results suggest that spray application of B11, when performed in the manner described above, can be effective for protection of chicks against Salmonella infection.
 
 
 
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