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Articles by C.M. Ashwell
Total Records ( 2 ) for C.M. Ashwell
  Y.O. Fasina , E.T. Moran , C.M. Ashwell , D.E. Conner , M. Leslie and S.R. Mckee
  Day-old Ross 308 chicks were used to evaluate the effect of dietary gelatin on intestinal development and broiler chick performance. Chicks were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments. The first treatment was the control SB diet based on corn-soybean meal and second treatment was the SBG test diet that contained 2% added gelatin with the total sulfur amino acid level remaining the same as in SB. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicate pens with 14 chicks per pen. Total duration of experiment was 0-3 weeks of age. Chick performance (weight gain and feed conversion efficiency) was evaluated on day 7 and 14. To assess intestinal development, abundance of mRNA of selected enterocyte genes (alkaline phosphatase, leucine aminopeptidase and mucin) was quantitatively determined by RT-PCR on day 7. Biochemical indices including DNA concentration, protein:DNA and protein:RNA ratios were also used to assess intestinal development. Results indicated that chicks fed the SBG diet had improved feed conversion efficiency on day 7 (p<0.05) and higher body weight gain on day 21 (p<0.05) compared to chicks fed the SB diet. Furthermore, eneterocyte genes assessed were upregulated (p<0.05) in the duodenum of SBG chicks. Jejunal protein:RNA ratio was also higher for SBG chicks (p<0.05), indicating a higher rate of protein synthesis in this tissue. The non-essential amino acids provided by gelatin beyond the most limiting appear to enhance early intestinal development and chick growth.
  Z.S. Lowman , F.W. Edens , C.M. Ashwell and S.J. Nolin
  In field trials, heat-exposed chickens given Actigen®, a second generation mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, maintained good intestinal health and performance. This investigation explored the influence of Actigen® on heat shock protein (HSP) responses in Ross 708 broiler chickens. Gender-segregated broilers were given either a control or Actigen®-supplemented (800 g/ton in starter, 400 g/ton in grower and 200 g/ton in finisher) diet over a 6 week growing period. At 3 and 6 weeks of age, broilers of each gender on each diet were exposed to 41°C for 1 h in a temperature-controlled chamber while controls were maintained at 24°C. After heat exposure, liver and ileum tissues were collected and preserved in RNAlater for determination of gene expression via Real Time PCR. Significant differences in mRNA expression for HSP90A, HSP90AA and HSP90B due to gender were found in the ileum, but no gender-related differences for these HSPs were found in the liver. In all heat-exposed birds, gene expression was elevated for HSP90A, HSP90AA, HSP90B, HSP70 and HSP60 in both liver and ileum with males at 3 and 6 weeks of age showing the greater HSP response. Lower Actigen®-related HSP90AA and HSP90B mRNA expression in the liver suggested that Actigen® potentially modified HSP expression outside the intestinal tract. Actigen® mechanism (s) of action outside the intestine are equivocal, but they might be indirect. Lower HSP mRNA expression in Actigen®-fed birds indicated that the supplement can modify the HSP response while allowing continued good performance during heat-exposure.
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