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Articles by C.G. Ipsilandis
Total Records ( 9 ) for C.G. Ipsilandis
  B. Vafias , C. Goulas , G. Lolas and C.G. Ipsilandis
  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the yielding performance of maize under stress conditions involving mixing of different genotypes, plant density and low water/fertilizer inputs. The impact on yield from competition and genetic differences was analysed. Two F1 hybrids (Prisma and Funo) were used, their F2s, the mixture of the F2s and the F1+F2 mixture of the first hybrid, in a high and in a low-inputs experiment. The two F1 hybrids increased field yield until 133300 plants ha-1 and at 190000 plants ha-1 there was a decrease due to increased rate of declining individual plant yield. The rate of decrease of individual plant yield is a parameter that determines the final field yield realised under increasing plant densities. In full-inputs experiment, there was a significant interaction between genetic materials and plant densities, meaning that different materials respond in a different way under the stress of density. F2 generations were affected lesser than F1 hybrids. Genetic purity proved to be a greater stress condition than density effects. This was more apparent in the low-inputs experiment where differences between genetic materials were much more significant and plant density was a limited stress, almost eliminated by the stronger stress of lower inputs. The low-inputs condition is a major stress masking the effects of plant density. F1 yield in the low-inputs experiment was close to the F2 yielding performance in the full-inputs experiment. Higher plant densities showed lower inbreeding depression values for both hybrids in both experiments. This was due to F2s buffering, resulting in increased relative yield in comparison to the F1s. The increasing plant density resulted in increasing CV values and number of barren plants. Extreme conditions, such as plant density and low inputs, showed that the F1s are affected more than multigenotypic materials, exhibiting greater increase in CV values. F1 hybrid Funo, showed increased numbers of barren plants and this may be an indication of low seed purity, but indications from F1 Funo and Prisma yield comparisons and from F1/F2 comparisons, showed that even if there was a quantity of impure seed partition for hybrid Funo this was small. Low inputs resulted in significant soil heterogeneity, maybe stronger as a stress condition than plant density effects and allocompetition. Ranking stress conditions, low inputs is the most severe stress because of the increased needs of modern maize hybrids, followed by seed purity and soil heterogeneity. Plant density is a problem only under extremely high or low populations.
  C.G. Ipsilandis and B.N. Vafias
  Breeding in maize (Zea mays L.) succeeded in improving tolerance to stresses and responsiveness to inputs, but failed to improve the potential yield per plant. Modern hybrids are highly productive, but their yield per unit area is dependent on high plant densities. Results of present study verified that modern hybrids require a narrow range of densities to give their maximum yield per unit area, since plant density affected significantly all kind of genetic materials. Results also showed that high densities are associated with high plant-to-plant variability and barrenness, affecting negatively the stability of hybrid performance. F2 and F1+F2 (mixture) genetic materials showed increasing yields, as plant density was increasing. This was due to high competition and the presence of heterotic plants. These findings pointed out the necessity for the development of maize hybrids with more stable performance across growing seasons. Density-independent hybrids can be effectively attained through selection in the absence of competition, aiming to improve the potential yield per plant. Very low densities, so that any plant-to-plant interference for growth resources use is eliminated, maximize mean yield per plant differentiation and optimise the phenotypic-genotypic correspondence, facilitating the identification of the superior entries. Evaluation under high plant densities may distinguish between different genetic materials, based on F2 yielding performance, to be used as starting materials in breeding programs. Even though the main goal is breeding for density-independent maize hybrids, since modern maize hybrids depend their yielding performance on higher plant densities, breeding for density tolerance may easily contribute to higher field yields.
  C.G. Ipsilandis , B.N. Vafias , A. Karagiozopoulou and C.K. Goulas
  Three F1 single-cross maize commercial hybrids were used in mechanical mixtures with their mother inbred parents aiming to explore the impact of the use of low-purity maize hybrid seed on leaf chlorophyll content and on yielding performance under varying plant densities. The evaluation of hybrid performance was conducted in two different experiments. Two plant densities were used in the first experiment and three in the second one. Starch gel electrophoresis was performed for hybrid seed purity determination. The seed emergence percentage (Emergence Index) in growth chamber was measured to estimate the differences between mixture seed partitions. In 11°C, the pure hybrid was easily distinguished from low purity seed partitions in the sixth day of measurement for all hybrids. Yielding performance in the field differed significantly for both factors: mainly between mechanical mixtures (seed partitions) and between a few seed partitions across densities. Leaf chlorophyll content was estimated on the basis of chlorophyll percentage (in SPAD units) in the leaves of the hybrid plants and their inbred parents. Differences were found mainly between hybrids and inbred lines and when seed partitions were compared within densities. In this study, it was demonstrated that seed purity is indeed a major stress in comparison to plant density and that an attentively conducted seed production program may insure yielding performance in the field for modern maize hybrids.
  C.G. Ipsilandis , P.N. Deligeorgidis , L. Giakalis , M. Koutsika , A. Papadopoulou and V. Xanthopoulos
  A review study on maize hybrid and inbred line productivity and stability, in an effort to overcome stagnation by developing more efficient breeding strategies. Data presented here, refer to maize hybrid and inbred line yields, under high and low plant populations, which depict the need for incorporation of favourable additive gene action in the genetic materials, under pedigree line selection schemes evaluating per se performance. Additionally, low populations during the first stages of selection, contribute to more reliable evaluation of favourable genotypes. Data reveal that inbred lines are capable to reach hybrid performance and consequently, replace single hybrids as the end-products for farmer use. As far as the yielding capacity of inbred parents improves, the less the yield in F1 is favored by heterozygosity. Other products, such as three-way crosses with lower level of heterozygosity, may be more efficient and stable than single hybrids and more readily developed. These products depend their productivity on additive gene action. Stability and uniformity of performance of three-way crosses is depended on high and stable inbred line performance. In general, these breeding strategies may lead to more stable end-products, density independent and with satisfactory yielding performance.
  N.P. Deligeorgidis , C.G. Ipsilandis , G. Sidiropoulos , V. Greveniotis , L. Giakalis and P.N. Deligeorgidis
  The aim of this study was to record the population and the fluctuations of Tingis sideritis Š tus á k, on a wild population of Sideritis scardica Griseb. of mount Vermion, Greece. This is the first reference for the presence of T. sideritis in Greece, a new enemy of S. scardica. In year 2005, recordings of T. sideritis population started at 15 of May and lasted until 4 of July. These recordings were repeated every 10 days (6 periods in total) on 50 wild tea plants selected in random. Two branches of each wild tea plant were studied. In year 2006, recordings of T. sideritis population started at 12 of May and lasted until 1 of July (with the same procedure as in 2005). In the laboratory, the insects of each branch were measured under a stereoscope and total replications were 100 (50 plants X2 branches). Period of recordings x year interaction found statistically significant at p<0.001. In general, year 2006 showed lower total number of adult insects in comparison to year 2005, may be due to the presence of natural enemies of T. sideritis, but most important is the different population fluctuations between the two years and it seems to be a common biological phenomenon in insects. If we take in consideration that a Sideritis plant may possess about 9-10 branches, then we can find about 100 adult insects/plant.
  P.N. Deligeorgidis , N.P. Deligeorgidis , S. Kayoglou , G. Sidiropoulos , M. Vaiopoulou , D.G. Stavridis , V. Greveniotis and C.G. Ipsilandis
  The aim of this study was monitoring and control of Quadraspidiotus perniciosus on apple trees, in the prefecture of Florina, Greece. Half of the experimental area was used as a check field (no application) and in the rest a chemical insecticide was used. Sticky and pheromone traps of the same type were used for monitoring Q. perniciosus in both fields. Samples were taken every 10 days and pheromone application was renewed every month until 17 of October for year 2004 and 22 of October for year 2005. Sticky traps were used for monitoring insects of immature stages. For controlling Q. perniciosus two applications were made using insecticide chlorpyrifos (Dursban) in the application field, at 19 of June and 19 of July for year 2004 and 14 of June and 14 of July for year 2005. Results showed that, populations of adult insects and of immature stages of Q. perniciosus were considerably increased in the check field during the two years of this study. In the application field insect populations were considerably decreased due to the effectiveness of the insecticide used applied. Year conditions influenced statistically significantly population fluctuations of insects (in adult and immature stages). There was not found any relation between trapped male population and larvae population and this was considered the most important finding for monitoring purposes.
  D.G. Stavridis , P.N. Deligeorgidis , A. Gliatis , C. Giatropoulos , E. Mola , C. Fotiadou and C.G. Ipsilandis
  The aim of the present research was to study fluctuations of populations of P. gossypiella in various areas in the Prefecture of Larissa. Data were analyzed to found the relation between population density of the insect and cotton production and additionally, to explore year and local (area) conditions as factors affecting damage levels. Correlations on data between years (across all communities) revealed that, when cotton production was high then the number of adult male insects of P. gossypiella captured in pheromone traps was also high (r = +0.93). Our data indicate that, when the environmental conditions of specific years favored cotton production, then the population of P. gossypiella was high due to the availability of food (more flowers and bolls), in a kind of synchronization. In parallel, the presence of increased numbers of useful insects that predate cotton enemies may result in lower damages on cotton production. In years 2002 and 2003, the presence of the insect may contribute in lower cotton production in the areas where population of adult males trapped was high. The mean cotton production was generally low in the areas where population of P. gossypiella was high. In this case, although statistically not significant, the tension was negative (r = -0.37). Local conditions within each area have been proved important and these results were completely different compared to data concerning years. The specific conditions within each area determine the balance between the insect population and level of damage on cotton production. There were areas where the insect showed increased populations resulting in low cotton production. These areas may need special treatment with insecticides or other techniques in order to decrease insect populations.
  N.P. Deligeorgidis , C. Karypidis , P.N. Deligeorgidis , C.G. Ipsilandis , M. Vaiopoulou and G. Sidiropoulos
  The predatory effect of female adults of four Coccinellid species on two aphid species was examined under laboratory conditions in controlled environmental chambers. This study was conducted on single rose leaves in transparent small plastic cages at varying proportions of predator/total number of aphids. The predators used proved to be effective for the biological control of aphids under controlled conditions. It is proposed to use C. septempunctata in biological control programs in greenhouses and fully controlled conditions, only under high pest densities (at proportions over 1:30 predator/aphids). It is also proposed to use M. picta in biological control programs in greenhouses, as a specialized predator of A. spiraecola at proportions close to 1:30 predator/aphids. A. bipunctata can be used as a predator for T. aurantii at the same proportions. H. variegata can be used as a predator of both aphid species with satisfying effectiveness at proportions close to 1:30 predator/aphids.
  P.N. Deligeorgidis , N.P. Deligeorgidis , C.G. Ipsilandis , A. Vardiabasis , D. Stavridis , M. Vayopoulou and G. Sidiropoulos
  The purpose of this study was to monitor population fluctuations of two thrips species (Limothrips cerealium and Limothrips denticornis), during the growing season of durum wheat, in years 2009 and 2010. Samplings of insects were taken in eight periods to cover the late stages of durum wheat. Measurements were made every about 100 m in the field, with five wheat plants per sample, from 10 different places. Total thrips individuals (per species) on each wheat plant were counted. The species Lema melanopa was also included in measurements (to make comparisons between thrips species more independent). According to the results for all three insects studied, sampling period showed the greatest differences. L. denticornis and L. melanopa, showed a significant interaction between year and sampling periods, indicating different population fluctuations in the two years. L. cerealium showed a stable population fluctuation across years. L. denticornis, showed also differences in population across years. This unstable behavior may be a result of some specific enemies or competition phenomena between the two thrips species, since maximum values of the two species were recorded in different sampling periods. Maximum number of thrips individuals found on each plant was 7 for L. denticornis and 9 for L. cerealium but maximum average values were close to 2 for L. denticornis (in 6th sampling period) and 2.8-3.3 for L. cerealium (between 4th and 5th sampling period). The relatively low populations of thrips species found in this study did not resulted in significant and apparent damages in durum wheat cultivation but the economic threshold for L. denticornis and L. cerealium has to be decided in combination to other insect pest species.
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