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Articles by C.D. Bradley
Total Records ( 4 ) for C.D. Bradley
  S.D. Goodgame , F.J. Mussini , C. Lu , C.D. Bradley and P.W. Waldroup
  Recent work has indicated that phytase enzymes may influence Sodium (Na) metabolism in the chick but to date no work has conclusively demonstrated that the Na requirement of the chick for live performance is influenced by phytase supplementation. In this study male broilers were fed diets with Na levels ranging from 0.10-0.28% using sodium bicarbonate as the primary source of supplemental Na. Diets were supplemented with no phytase, 500 FTU/kg (1x) or 2,000 FTU/kg (4x) of phytase. When phytase was added the dietary Ca and Nonphytate P (NPP) were adjusted in accordance with anticipated release of these minerals. For 1x phytase the Ca and NPP were reduced 0.10% each and for 4x phytase were reduced by 0.20% each. The combination of seven Na levels and three phytase treatments resulted in 21 dietary treatments, each of which was fed to six replicate pens of five male chicks housed in electrically heated battery brooders with wire floors. Experimental diets and tap water were provided for ad libitum consumption from day of hatch to 18 d. At 16 d of age excreta from each pen was collected and freeze dried to determine moisture content and the excreta analyzed to determine amounts of Ca, P and Na. There were no significant differences in Body Weight (BW), Feed Conversion (FCR), Feed Intake (FI), fecal moisture (FH2O), or mortality of broilers fed diets with different levels of phytase indicating that the dietary adjustment in NPP and Ca levels for the addition of the phytase did not adversely affect performance of the birds. The dietary Na level significantly affected BW, FCR, FI or FH2O. There were no significant interactions of dietary Na and level of phytase supplementation. Regression analysis showed an overall estimate of 0.18±0.01% Na for BW and 0.19±0.01% Na for FCR. There was little indication that the Na requirement was affected by phytase. The level of phytase and Na in the diet had significant effects on excreta levels of P, Ca and Na. The use of lower dietary levels of NPP and Ca in association with the addition of the phytase resulted in significant reduction in excreta levels of these minerals, but had no significant effect on levels of excreted Na. Increasing the dietary Na level significantly affected the levels of all three minerals in the excreta. Although the dietary Na level had significant effects on both excreta P and Ca, these followed no consistent trends with no significant difference in Ca or P excretion between chicks fed diets with the lowest and highest Na levels. There were significant interactions between dietary Na levels and levels of phytase supplementation for all three minerals in the excreta. However, these did not appear to follow any consistent pattern. While it is apparent that phytase influences the metabolism of Na within the body, the data from the present study suggests that this has little impact on the dietary need for Na.
  S.D. Goodgame , F.J. Mussini , C. Lu , C.D. Bradley , S.E. Watkins and P.W. Waldroup
  After a seven day depletion period of vitamin D supplementation beginning on day of hatch, male chicks of a commercial broiler strain were placed on diets supplemented with either a commercial source of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) or a new source derived from fermentation. Levels of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 μg/kg of each source were added to a common basal diet that was considered as marginal in calcium and phosphorus content. Each diet was fed to six pens of five birds each. Birds were then grown to 21 d of age at which time body weight and feed consumption were determined. All birds were euthanized by CO2 inhalation and all toes were removed and ashed. The right tibia was subjected to bone ash determination while the left tibia was subjected to break force analysis. Analysis of the data indicated no significant differences in performance between chicks fed the two sources of 25-OH-D3 (p<0.05) although numerical differences in weight gain and feed conversion were observed that neared statistical significance (p = 0.06 and 0.08, respectively). Estimates of the amount of 25-OH-D3 needed by the bird were approximately 10 μg/kg for tibia ash and 20 μg/kg for body weight and bone breaking force.
  S.D. Goodgame , F.J. Mussini , C. Lu , C.D. Bradley , N. Comert and P.W. Waldroup
  Recent studies have suggested that phytase enzymes may influence sodium (Na) metabolism in the chick. However, no studies have demonstrated that the dietary Na requirement itself is influenced by phytase supplementation. In the present study male broilers were fed diets with Na levels ranging from 0.10 to 0.28% using NaCl as the source of supplemental sodium. Diets were fed either without phytase or with 500 (1X), 1000 (2X), or 2000 (4X) FTU/kg of phytase. For 1X phytase the Ca and Nonphytate P (NPP) were reduced 0.10% each and 0.20% each for the 2X and 3X levels of phytase supplementation. The diets with 0.10% and 0.28% Na were blended to provide Na levels of 0.10, 0.13, 0.16, 0.19, 0.22, 0.25 and 0.28% Na. Aliquots of these diets were then supplemented with the 0, 1X, 2X and 4X levels of phytase in a 4 x 7 factorial arrangement of treatments, each of which was fed to six replicate pens of five male broilers in electrically heated battery brooders. Experimental diets and tap water were provided for ad libitum consumption from day of hatch to 18 d of age. At 16 d excreta samples from each pen were freeze dried to determine moisture, Ca and P content. At 18 d body weight and feed consumption were determined. Two birds per pen were killed by CO2 inhalation and tibias removed and subjected to bone breaking determination. Chicks fed diets with the different levels of phytase with diets adjusted for anticipated release of Ca and P did not differ significantly in BW, Feed Conversion (FCR), mortality, or fecal moisture content, indicating that the adjustments made for anticipated release of Ca and P was adequate in relation to these measurements. Sodium levels of the diet had significant effects on BW, FCR and fecal moisture. Fecal moisture increased with each level of sodium, so lower dietary levels would be beneficial in this regard. No significant effects on mortality were noted for sodium levels. No significant interactions were noted between sodium level and phytase supplementation for BW, FCR, fecal moisture, or mortality. Regression analyses suggested a sodium requirement of 0.21±0.02% for BW and 0.15±0.01% for FCR. Estimates of sodium requirement at different levels of phytase supplementation did not show any consistent effect of phytase supplementation on the sodium requirement for BW or FCR. Therefore there is no evidence that phytase supplementation will modifiy the dietary sodium requirement of the broiler chick.
  F.J. Mussini , S.D. Goodgame , C. Lu , C.D. Bradley , S.M. Fiscus and P.W. Waldroup
  The utilization of vaccines has proven to be a good strategy to prevent coccidiosis but the process of immunity acquisition needs to be approached from a nutritional point of view as well if complete success in broiler performance is to be achieved. It has been reported that Glutamine (GLU) plays a key role both in the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system and its utilization could be beneficial to cocci-vaccinated broilers. In this study, twelve hundred one-day-old male chicks were vaccinated at a commercial hatchery with a coccidiosis vaccine and randomly allocated to four treatments, each of which had six replications with 50 birds per pen. Birds were maintained in pens with built up wood shavings litter. Each treatment consisted of the same basal diet that met average nutrient levels in the U.S. poultry industry with four different inclusion rates of GLU (0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1%). Birds were fed the experimental diets from 1 to 28 days of age and a common unsupplemented diet to 42 d. Body weights were significantly improved at 21 and 28 days for all the treatments where the GLU was included. Feed conversion was not significantly affected by the inclusion of GLU. There were no significant differences in body weight and feed conversion at 42 days but the numerical difference in weight between the control and the treatments with GLU observed earlier were maintained. At 43 days, eight birds per pen were processed in a pilot processing plant. Breast meat yield was not significantly different among treatments. Glutamine proved to be beneficial during the process of immunity acquisition improving broiler performance significantly until 28 days and maintaining the body weight difference until the end of the experiment.
 
 
 
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