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Articles by C.C. Ariahu
Total Records ( 6 ) for C.C. Ariahu
  J.S. Alakali , C.C. Ariahu and E.I. Kucha
  The kinetics of moisture uptake by foam-mat dried powder from mango pulp was evaluated at four temperatures (10, 20, 30 and 40°C) and two relative humidities (55 and 80%), while moisture sorption data for shelf life prediction was determined at the same temperatures and eight water activities ranging from 0.032-0.925. Result show that the rate of moisture uptake was highly in the first 2 to 4 h at any given storage temperature and relative humidity. Moisture uptake generally decreased with increase in storage temperature but did not show a defined trend after the first few hours. The rate of moisture uptake was higher at 55 than at 80% storage relative humidities. Effective diffusivities of samples incorporated with foam stabilizes were higher due to high porosity. Moisture uptake obeyed the penetration theory indicating that the process was Fickan. Predicted shelf-life of the powders generally decreased with increased storage relative humidity and temperature. The predicted shelf-life of the powders was generally above 365 days. The shelf life of powders incorporated with foam stabilizers was generally shorter as they had lower equilibrium moisture content. Predicted shelf life of the powders was longer in packaging materials of low permeability to thickness ratio.
  D.I. Gernah , C.C. Ariahu and E.K. Ingbian
  The effects of malting and fermentation on some chemical and functional properties of maize grains were determined. White maize kernels (variety TZW, 2005 harvest) were germinated over a period of 96 h and flours of 72 h germinated grains were fermented by back-slopping. Analysis of the selected physico-chemical parameters of the resulting samples were carried out using standard analytical methods. Germination of grains resulted in significant (p<0.05) increase in crude protein, total soluble sugars and reducing sugars up to 72 h and ash content. Conversely, there was significant decrease (p<0.05) in crude fat and carbohydrates during this period. After 72 h, protein and crude fibre content reduced slightly, while carbohydrate, crude fat and ash increased though not significantly (p>0.05). There was also a significant decrease (p<0.05) in pH (6.80-5.94) as germination progressed while there was a gradual increase in TTA which was not significant (p>0.05). Accelerated natural fermentation of the maize flour also showed a similar trend for all the parameters. Malting and fermentation gave rise to decrease in packed bulk density (1.17-0.54 g mL-1) swelling index (6.47-3.46 mL g-1) and viscosity (343.33-288.26 cP) while increasing the water absorption capacity (3.70-3.92 g g-1) and reconstitution index (4.82-6.40 mL g-1). There was also a significant reduction in tannin content (2.62-0.42 g/100 g), phytates (2.30-0.84 g/100 g), oxalates (2.32-0.34 g/100 g), cyanide content (2.20-0.42 mg/100 g) and fibre (2.12-1.11 g/100 g).
  B.D. Igbabul , C.C. Ariahu and E.U. Umeh
  The moisture desorption isotherms of the African arrowroot lily (Tacca involucrata S) tuber mash as influenced by blanching and natural fermentation were investigated using gravimetric method. Equilibrium Moisture Contents (EMCs) of four products comprising Non Blanched Non Fermented Mash (NBNFM), Non Blanched Fermented Mash (NBFM), Blanched Non Fermented Mash (BNFM) and Blanched and Fermented Mash (BFM) were obtained at 10-30°C and water activity (aw) of 0.08-0.95. Percent Root Mean Square of error (RMS%) was used to evaluated goodness of fit of common moisture sorption models to experimental data while isosteric heats of desorption were calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The isotherms were sigmoid in shape (type II) with the EMCs being lowest for the blanched and fermented mash. The GAB, Halsey and Oswin equations in that order provided good fit to experimental data (<10% RMS). BET monolayer moisture contents were lower for pretreated samples and ranged from 10.6-16.3 g H2O/100 g solids for the Native Mash (NBNFM) and 6.04-8.9 g H2O/100 g solids for the BFM, surface areas for monolayer desorption ranged from 370.6-572.9 m2 g-1 solid for NBNFM and 212.2-312.9 m2 g-1 solid for BFM. Net isosteric heats of desorption significantly (p<0.05) decreased with increase in moisture content with maximum values varying from 6.6 kJ mol-1 for the native mash to 27.6 kJ mol-1 for the BFM.
  M.A. Igyor , C.C. Ariahu and C.U. Inyang
  The thermodynamics of heat destruction of Listeria monocytogenes in soymilk of varying initial pH (6.0-6.8) and sugar contents (0.5-10% w/v) were studied using kinetic parameters generated via the classical thermobacteriology assumption of a log-linear relationship between Listeria monocytogenes survivors and heating time (0.5-30 min at 50-65°C). The activation enthalpy (ΔH+), entropy (ΔS+), Energy (Ea) and frequency factor (k0) for the heat inactivation ranged, respectively, from about 275-302, 612-705 J/mol deg., 277-305 kJ/mol and 2.9x1043-2.0x1048 min-1 increasing with increases in initial sugar contents and acidity of soymilk. A kinetic compensation effect was observed for both ΔS+/ΔH+ and ln k0/Ea relationships with isokinetic temperature of 32.16x0.13°C and isokinetic destruction rate constant of 9.21x10-5 min-1 for the microbe in soymilk.
  C.C. Ariahu , E.U. Ohuoba and B.D. Igbabul
  The thermal resistances of Clostridium sporogenes (ATCC 19404) in African giant snail based formulated low acidity (pH 6.8) products comprising Snail in Brine (SIB), Snail in Sauce (SIS) and Snail in Egusi Soup (SES) were investigated using Thermal Death Time (TDT) technique within lethal temperature range 104.4-121.1°C. Established decimal reduction times (D-values) were used for canning the products in 300/208L/L round sanitary cans based on 5D-concept with respect to the test microbe. The D-values (min) of canned African giant snail ranged from 5.4-0.88 min for snail in sauce, 6.8-1.2 min for snail in egusi and 5.6-0.84 min for snail in brine within 104.4-121.1°C, the z-values ranged from 8.8°C for SIB to 9.6°C for SES product. The established thermal process schedules of temperatures 110, 115, 120 and 121.1°C and at times of 4.2, 5.6, 20.7, 76.7 min are recommended for commercial production of canned snails in brine, sauce and egusi soup, respectively.
  D. Ahure and C.C. Ariahu
  The quality of glucose syrup from cassava hydrolysis by rice malt crude enzymes extract was evaluated. Four syrups were produced using 5% rice malt 95% cassava flour, 10% rice malt 90% cassava flour, 15% rice malt 85% cassava flour and 20% rice malt 80% cassava flour, respectively. The viscosity, brix, refractive index, flavour, colour, taste and overall acceptability of the syrups were determined. The use of the crude enzyme extract for cassava starch hydrolysis resulted in significant (p≤0.05) decrease in viscosities which is advantageous in relation to flow and pumping requirements. The brix and refractive indices values were 65.5° and 1.454° (5% of rice malt 95% cassava flour), 61.0° and 1.445° (10% of rice malt 90% cassava flour), 58.5° and 1.439° (15% of rice malt 85% cassava flour) and 55.5° and 1.432° (20% of rice malt 80% cassava flour), respectively indicating that the substrate concentration was the limiting factor in enzyme hydrolysis of cassava starch. The mean sensory scores were 2.50-4.25 for 5% of rice malt 95% cassava flour, 2.75-3.58 for 10% of rice malt 90% cassava flour, 2.00-4.08 for 15% of rice malt 85% cassava flour and 3.08-4.08 for 20% of rice malt 80% cassava flour, respectively on a 5-point Hedonic scale.
 
 
 
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