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Articles by C.C. Satheesh
Total Records ( 3 ) for C.C. Satheesh
  R. Manoj Kumar , R. Anbazhagan , C.C. Satheesh , V. Balamurugan , V. Mrudula and K. Porteen
  The vertebrate body is an ideal breeding ground for viruses and provides the conditions that promote their growth, survival and transmission. Vertebrates have developed immunity and at the same time the invading viruses have discovered elegant ways to circumvent the host`s immune mechanisms. One of the defense strategies that counteract the immune responses of the infected host exploits viral immunomodulators that directly interfere with the host`s cytokine system. Virus encoded immunomodulators (Virokines), enables viruses to create favorable habitat, which preserves them by protecting against damage from the inflammatory response, as well as by blocking apoptosis, until the virus replicates to high titers and finds another host. Virokines are clinically and therapeutically beneficial to the medical field and also having potential implications in viral epidemiology, treatment or prevention of viral and inflammatory diseases and for the development of safer vaccines. The endogenous secretion of the virus immunomodulators is thus emerging as an important mechanism of viral control, which is potentially inducible by effective vaccines. The in depth knowledge of the interactions between viruses and the virokines may lead to novel therapeutic and preventive strategies for the control of viral inflammatory diseases. There is no doubt that these virokines will serve as useful starting points for the development of new treatment tools in the new millennium.
  Singh, R.K. , V. Balamurugan , M. Hosamani , C.C. Satheesh , T.J. Rasool and M.P. Yadav
  Buffalopox is a contagious viral disease-affecting buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and rarely cows, with morbidity up to 80%in affected herd causing high economic losses to the farmers. In the present study, as a preliminary work, the field isolates of BPV recovered from suspected clinical materials obtained from outbreaks of different geographical locations of the country were propagated in Vero cells and purified along with reference BP4 virus for comparison. Purification of BPV was carried out in sucrose density gradient (60-36%), where two white opalescent bands appeared after ultracentifugation. The upper band, above the 36% sucrose layer was found to be enveloped virus (Extra cellular enveloped virus) where as the band at interface was the pure naked virus (Intracellular Mature Virus). The purity of the virus preparations was assessed by UV-spectrophotometry, SDS-PAGE and infectivity assay in cell culture. The extinction ratio values (O.D. 260/280) for all the BPV isolates were within the range of 1.2 to 1.4 indicating highly purified nature of the BPV. On the basis of polypeptide compositions, BPV isolates were similar and contained more than 25 polypeptides with a molecular weight range from 14.2 kDa to 180 kDa. Both the opalescent bands produced characteristics CPE in Vero cell line in infectivity assay. This preliminary study will help in undertaking further work on protein profile and further characterization, which, in turn, will help in understanding the virological and immunological properties of the new virus isolates for development of suitable immuno-diagnostics and prophylactics.
  C.C. Satheesh , A.K. Sharma , P. Dwivedi , K. Prasanna , R.D. Patil and S. Rahul
  Ochratoxins are potent mycotoxins elaborated by Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Incidence of ochratoxin A (OT-A) in feed and natural occurrence of ochratoxicosis in animals have been reported from various parts of the world, including India. In this study, we report the immunosuppressive effect of ochratoxin A in rats. The cell mediated immune responses, as assessed by 2, 4-di-nitro-chloro-benzene (DNCB) induced contact hypersensitivity reaction and macrophage function test ( NO2- production assay) were found to be decreased significantly in OT-A intoxicated rats as compared with those in controls. Humoral immune response, assessed by antibody titres against sheep red blood cells, was also found to be decreased in toxin fed rats. The haemato-biochemical alterations such as leucopenia, lymphopenia and hypoproteinemia associated with OT-A toxicity were also indicative of immunosuppression. These findings suggest that OT-A induces the suppression of both humoral and cell mediated immune responses and must be taken into account while dealing with cases of vaccination failure or frequent bacterial and viral infections in livestock and poultry.
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