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Articles by C.A. Fritts
Total Records ( 11 ) for C.A. Fritts
  A.M.H. Subuh , M.A. Motl , C.A. Fritts and P. W. Waldroup
  A study was conducted in which whole unextracted soybeans were processed by passing the beans through a roller mill and then extruding without steam. The processed beans were then included into nutritionally adequate broiler diets, replacing solvent extracted soybean meal in ratios of 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, and 0/100 % with dietary energy levels of 3200, 3300, and 3400 ME kcal/kg. This resulted in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each treatment was fed to six replicate pens of 60 male chicks of a commercial broiler strain from 1 to 42 days of age. The results of the study demonstrate that the inclusion of extruded fullfat soybean in a pelleted broiler diet supported chick performance equal or superior to that of dehulled solvent extracted soybean meal, and that extruded soybeans could partially or completely replace soybean meal without any adverse effects on body weight, feed conversion, mortality, dressing percentage, or abdominal fat content provided the diets are nutritionally balanced.
  P. W. Waldroup , C.A. Fritts , J. H. Kersey , E. A. Saleh , B. J. Kerr and M.T. Kidd
  A study was conducted to determine the minimum crude protein content of finisher diets based on corn and soybean meal supplemented with commercially available amino acids for male Large White turkeys. Diets were formulated to contain a minimum of 105% of NRC (1994) recommended levels of Met, Lys, TSAA, Thr, and Trp for diets fed 16 to 20 wk of age; no other essential amino acids were specified. The crude protein content of the diets ranged from 75 to 100% of the recommended level of 16.5%. When diets were formulated to contain at least the minimum recommended levels of Met, TSAA, Lys, Thr, reducing the crude protein content of the diet to less than 85% resulted in a significant reduction in weight at 20 wk or body weight gain from 16 to 20 wk. Addition of Ile and Val to diets formulated to contain 80 or 85% of the recommended crude protein level had no significant effect on body weight or weight gain, indicating that a deficiency of these amino acids per se was not responsible for the reduction in performance on diets with low levels of crude protein. Feed conversion was more variable and was not significantly influenced by dietary crude protein.
  Jianlin Si , J.H. Kersey , C.A. Fritts and P.W. Waldroup
  Levels of lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) in excess of NRC recommendations may result in enhanced performance, especially in regard to breast meat yield (BMY). Some people have interpreted the "ideal Protein" concept to suggest that amino acids such as Met should be kept in an "Ideal" ratio with Lys even though Lys may be in excess of actual needs. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to evaluate the effects of levels of Lys and Met in excess of NRC recommendations in diets of male broilers grown for further processing; 2) to determine if any interaction exists between levels of Lys and Met when minimum levels are exceeded. Three studies of identical design were conducted. Corn, soybean meal and corn gluten meal of known composition were used to formulate basal diets for 0 to 3, 3 to 6, and 6 to 9 wk which provided a minimum of 110% of NRC (1994) amino acid recommendations other than Lys, Met and TSAA which were at 100% of recommended levels. From the base diets, experimental diets were derived by additions of lysine HCl and DL methionine to provide a factorial arrangement with three levels of Lys (NRC, NRC + 0.15%, NRC + 0.3%) and four levels of Met and TSAA (NRC, NRC + 0.05%, NRC + 0.1%, NRC + 0.15%). Each of the 12 diets was fed to two (trial 1) or four (trial 2 and 3) replicate pens of 50 male broilers (Cobb 500). Birds were weighed and feed consumption determined at 3, 6, 7, 8, and 9 week. Samples of birds were processed at 7, 8, 9 wk for parts yield. Although significant differences in performance were noted among trials due to environmental temperature there was no trial x treatment interaction so data were combined. There were no significant interactions between Lys and Met for any parameter when both were fed equal to or in excess of NRC recommendations. Increasing Lys above NRC recommendations significantly improved BW and FCR at 21 d but not at later ages; BMY was improved by increasing Lys only at 63 d. Increasing Met above NRC significantly improved FCR at 42 and 56d; there was no significant effect of Met levels on BMY at any age. Results of this study suggest that people formulating diet on "Ideal Protein" basis should not elevate the level of Met if lysine is in excess of its minimum needs.
  Q. Jiang , P.W. Waldroup and C.A. Fritts
  Reduction of the dietary crude protein (CP) by amino acid supplementation is effective to a point but performance eventually declines. This study was conducted to determine if supplementation with certain amino acids that serve as precursors to metabolites involved in the urea cycle or the formation of essential amino acids might improve the performance at low protein levels. Diets were formulated to meet 100% or 110% of NRC recommendations for essential amino acids with Lys at 110% or 120% of recommendations. The CP levels were 16, 18, 20, 22 or 24%. The CP and ME equivalency values of amino acids were considered in the formulation. A minimum dietary electrolyte balance [(Na+K)-Cl)] of 200 meq/kg was maintained. Amino acids added to the low CP diets included: 1) Gly; 2) Gly + Arg; 3) Gly + Pro; 4) Arg + Pro; 5) Gly + Arg + Pro; 6) Gly + Arg + Pro + Glu. The Gly, Arg, and Pro were added at 0.2% while Glu was added at 0.4%. Each dietary treatment was fed to six pens of five male chicks from 1 to 21 d. Feeding diets with less than 22% CP resulted in loss in the body weight (BW) and impaired the feed conversion ratio (FCR) regardless of the amino acid status. Supplementation of low CP diets with Gly significantly improved the performance of broilers but did not reach that obtained on diets with 22 or 24% CP. None of the other amino acid supplements consistently influenced the performance of chicks in the absence of Gly. These data suggest that Gly may be a limiting factor in diets low in CP. It is likely that some of the requirements for lesser researched essential amino acids may be insufficient to support performance at lower levels of crude protein.
  P.W. Waldroup , Q. Jiang and C.A. Fritts
  A study was conducted to evaluate effects of dietary crude protein (CP) level and Gly and Thr supplementation on performance of male broiler chicks during the period of 0 to 21 days. Diets were formulated based on NRC (1994) recommendations (Lysine at 110% of suggested level). All diets were formulated to contain 3,200 ME kcal/kg. A minimum dietary electrolyte balance of 250 meq/kg was stipulated with a minimum of 0.25% sodium and 0.20% chloride. Five primary diets were formulated to contain 16%, 18%, 20%, 22%, and 24% CP. The diets were then supplemented with additional 0, 0.2%, 0.4% Gly or 0, 0.2%, 0.4% Thr in all possible combinations resulting in a 5x3x3 factorial arrangement. Each of the 45 treatments was fed to six replicate pens of five male commercial broilers. The test diets and tap water were provided for the ad libitum consumption from 1 to 21 d of age. At 21 d of age body weight and feed consumption were determined. Reducing dietary protein below 22% significantly reduced 21 d BW and depressed feed conversion. Addition of 0.2 or 0.4% Gly significantly improved BW and numerically improved feed conversion at lower levels of protein but at protein levels of 20% or more the basal diets appeared to provide sufficient Gly. These data suggest that requirements for Gly suggested by NRC (1994) are inadequate in diets with low CP. Thr supplementation was ineffective in improving performance at low CP levels suggesting that the present recommendations of NRC (1994) are adequate. Mortality did not vary significantly among chicks receiving all experimental diets.
  P.W. Waldroup , Q. Jiang and C.A. Fritts
  Reduction of dietary crude protein (CP) with amino acid supplementation has been effective in reducing the cost of poultry feed. However, the performance of broilers declines when CP levels reaches a point and can not be totally restored with amino acid supplementation. This study was conducted to determine if differences in feed intake were responsible for the reduced performance at low protein levels. Diets were formulated to meet 100% of NRC (1994) recommendations for indispensable amino acids (Lys at 110%) with CP levels of 16%, 18%, 20%, 22% or 24% with the CP and metabolic energy (ME) equivalency values of amino acids considered in the diet formulation. A minimum dietary electrolyte balance of 200 meq/kg was maintained. There were two feeding regimes including ad libitum feeding and control feeding with a total of ten treatments. All birds were provided a complete 24% CP diet ad libitum from one to 7 d. At 7 d chicks were weighed and placed on test diets containing the various levels of CP. One group remained on ad libitum feeding while the other group was control fed. Feeding diets with less than 20% CP resulted in the loss of BW and impaired feed conversion ratio (FCR) regardless of feeding regimes. There was no significant difference in feed intake and mortality among different dietary treatments in both feeding regimes. Reduction in feed intake does not appear to be the cause of reduced performance on diets low in CP.
  P.W. Waldroup , Q. Jiang and C.A. Fritts
  A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding all essential amino acids (EAA) equal to that of higher CP diets or a mixture of nonessential amino acids (NEAA) to low CP diets on the live performance of broilers during the period of 0 to 21 d. A series of experimental diets comprised primarily of corn and soybean meal were formulated to contain 3,200 ME kcal/kg. Five primary diets were formulated to contain 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24% CP. Requirement levels for EAA (110% of NRC, 1994) were accomplished when necessary by adding crystalline amino acids. In each of these dietary series, diets with 16, 18, and 20% CP were supplemented with additional EAA (Trp, Ile, His, Val, Leu, Arg, Gly and Phe) to bring the content of all these EAA to a level equal to that of the 22% CP diet. Additional diets in each series with 16, 18, and 20% CP were supplemented with a mixture of NEAA (equal parts of Ala, Glu, and Glu-NH2) to provide levels of nitrogen equivalent to that provided by the EAA supplementation in the previous diets. Each of the treatments was fed to 12 replicate pens of 5 male chicks of a commercial broiler strain. The reduction of CP level in the starter diets had a significant influence on the live performance. Decreasing CP levels lower than 22% significantly decreased BW gain and increased the feed conversion ratio (FCR). Adding the EAA or NEAA mixtures to the low CP diets significantly improved the performance but did not completely overcome the adverse effects of the low CP diets.
  P.W. Waldroup and C.A. Fritts
  A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementation of corn-soybean meal based diets with betaine and choline on live performance and breast meat yield of male broiler chicks. Diets formulated to meet nutrient levels of top broiler companies were supplemented with either 0 or 1000 mg/kg betaine in combination with either 0 or 1000 mg/kg choline. Betaine supplementation was carried out either for the full 49 d feeding trial or initiated at 35 d of age. Each dietary treatment was assigned to eight replicate pens of 60 male chicks of a commercial strain. At 42 and 49 d of age samples of birds were processed under commercial conditions and dressing percentage and breast yield determined. The results of this study indicate little or no positive benefit in terms of body weight gain, feed conversion, or mortality from the addition of betaine to nutritionally adequate corn-soybean meal based diets for broiler chicks in situations where disease challenge from coccidiosis is not a major issue. Improvements in dressing percentage were obtained from betaine supplementation and in breast yield from choline supplementation at 42 d of age but not at 49 d of age. Therefore, age of bird might be a consideration for using these supplements as birds processed at younger ages might be more responsive to these nutrients. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential effect of age on response to choline and betaine.
  P.W. Waldroup , C.A. Fritts , C.A. Keen and F. Yan
  One experiment in wire-floored batteries and two experiments in litter-floor pens were conducted to evaluate the effects of addition of alpha-galactosidase enzyme to typical corn-soybean meal based diets for broilers. In two experiments, Avizyme 1502 was fed in conjunction with the alpha-galactosidase enzyme. In formulating test diets, soybean meal was assigned an ME value beginning at 2440 ME kcal/kg and increased on the assumption that the addition of the enzyme would increase the ME of soybean meal by 10, 20, or 30%. In two experiments, the level of supplemental poultry oil remained constant with increases in apparent ME, while in the third the level of supplemental poultry oil was reduced as the assumed ME level of soybean meal was increased. Male chicks of a commercial broiler strain were used in all experiments. Overall, the results of the three experiments suggest little if any improvement in metabolizable energy of SBM as a result of the addition of an exogenous alpha-galactosidase enzyme, as indicated by evaluation of body weight gain, feed utilization, calorie conversion, or mortality. No improvements in the above parameters were noted when Avizyme 1502 was added to the diet, alone or in combination with the alpha-galactosidase enzyme. At the present time, it does not appear that diets based on corn and SBM of average quality would benefit from supplementation with these enzymes.
  F. Yan , J.H. Kersey , C.A. Fritts and P.W. Waldroup
  It has been frequently demonstrated that addition of phytase to corn-soybean meal diets will improve the utilization of the phytate-bound P for the broiler chicken. The effect of phytase on release of other nutrients such as Ca is less clear-cut. A study was conducted to examine the effects of phytase supplementation on diets with various dietary levels of Ca and nonphytate P (nPP). A diet was formulated that provided nutrients in excess of NRC (1994) recommendations with 1.0% Ca and 0.50% nPP. By varying the amounts of dicalcium phosphate, limestone, and sand in aliquots of a common basal diet, diets were prepared with 1) Low-P and Low-Ca, 2) Low-P and High-Ca, 3) High-P and Low-Ca, and 4) High-P and High-Ca. The diets were analyzed for Ca and P content and blended as needed to provide test diets in a factorial arrangement of three Ca levels (0.5, 0.7, and 0.9%) with eight levels of nPP (0.15 to 0.50% in increments of 0.05%). These 24 diets were divided and half supplemented with 1000 units/kg of phytase. Each treatment was fed to six pens of six male broilers from one to 21 d of age. Response of both body weight and tibia ash to phytase supplementation in broilers was significantly affected by dietary Ca levels as well as dietary nPP levels. Without phytase supplementation, both body weight and tibia ash were depressed at the lowest level of nPP as dietary Ca level increased. Adding phytase to these diets improved both body weight and tibia ash as a result of increased availability of P. At both 0.5% and 0.7% Ca, the dietary Ca level was a limiting factor in maximizing tibia ash regardless of P level or phytase supplementation. These data indicate that minimal Ca appeared to be released by phytase and that no reduction in Ca level of broiler should be implemented with phytase supplementation.
  P.W. Waldroup , E.O. Oviedo-Rondon and C.A. Fritts
  A study was conducted to compare response of young broiler chicks to various levels of Lys and Arg using two different dietary approaches. In both diet types, a 4 x 5 factorial arrangement with Lys levels of 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4% and Arg levels of 1.25, 1.35, 1.45, 1.55, and 1.65% was used. All other essential amino acids were at least 110% of NRC (1994). Corn, soybean meal, and corn gluten meal (CGM) of known composition were used. In the first diet set (BASAL + AA) a diet that contained 1.1% Lys and 1.25% Arg was fortified with L-Lysine HCl and L-Arg to provide the various levels of Lys and Arg. In the second dietary set (INTACT) each of the 20 diet combinations was formulated independently using intact protein sources to provide the desired Lys and Arg levels with the primary difference being in amount of CGM that varied from 0 to 33%. Data were subjected to ANOVA as factorial arrangement of treatments. Conflicting results between the two diet types existed. In BASAL+AA diets there were no significant differences in BW or FCR due to Lys; 1.35 to 1.45% Arg was necessary for optimum FCR. Although the Lys x Arg interaction was not significant the reduction in BW or FCR at high Lys with low Arg interaction was not significant, the reduction in BW or FCR at high Lys with low Arg appeared primarily responsible for the increased Arg needs. In the INTACT series there were significant interactions in BW and FCR for Arg and Lys, but these appeared to be associated with reduced performance on diets high (15-30%) in CGM. In a parallel study these levels of CGM reduced performance due to reduced feed intake. Thus, differences in diet type may influence response to Arg and Lys due to factors other than amino acid level per se.
 
 
 
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