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Articles by C. Zhu
Total Records ( 3 ) for C. Zhu
  L Wang , C Yu , H Chen , W Qin , Y He , F Fan , Y Zhang , M Wang , K Li , Y Zang , T. S Woodward and C. Zhu

Numerous studies argue that cortical reorganization may contribute to the restoration of motor function following stroke. However, the evolution of changes during the post-stroke reorganization has been little studied. This study sought to identify dynamic changes in the functional organization, particularly topological characteristics, of the motor execution network during the stroke recovery process. Ten patients (nine male and one female) with subcortical infarctions were assessed by neurological examination and scanned with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging across five consecutive time points in a single year. The motor execution network of each subject was constructed using a functional connectivity matrix between 21 brain regions and subsequently analysed using graph theoretical approaches. Dynamic changes in topological configuration of the network during the process of recovery were evaluated by a mixed model. We found that the motor execution network gradually shifted towards a random mode during the recovery process, which suggests that a less optimized reorganization is involved in regaining function in the affected limbs. Significantly increased regional centralities within the network were observed in the ipsilesional primary motor area and contralesional cerebellum, whereas the ipsilesional cerebellum showed decreased regional centrality. Functional connectivity to these brain regions demonstrated consistent alterations over time. Notably, these measures correlated with different clinical variables, which provided support that the findings may reflect the adaptive reorganization of the motor execution network in stroke patients. In conclusion, the study expands our understanding of the spectrum of changes occurring in the brain after stroke and provides a new avenue for investigating lesion-induced network plasticity.

  C. Zhu , J. Yu , Z. Yang , K. Davis , H. Rios , B. Wang , G. Glenn and E. C. Boedeker
  Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains are important human food-borne pathogens. EHEC strains elaborate potent Shiga toxins (Stx1, and/or Stx2) implicated in the development of hemorrhagic colitis (HC) or hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). In this report, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Stx1 subunit B (StxB1) administered by transcutaneous immunization (TCI). Three groups of Dutch Belted rabbits received patches containing StxB1, StxB1 in combination with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), or LT alone. An additional group of naïve rabbits served as controls. The protective efficacy following TCI with StxB1 was assessed by challenging rabbits with a virulent Stx1-producing strain, RDEC-H19A, capable of inducing HC and HUS in rabbits. Antibodies specific to StxB1 from serum and bile samples were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and toxin neutralization test. Rabbits immunized with StxB1 demonstrated improved weight gain and reduced Stx-induced histopathology. Rabbits receiving StxB or StxB1/LT showed a significant increase in serum immunoglobulin G titers specific to StxB1 as well as toxin neutralization titers. These data demonstrated that the StxB delivered by TCI could induce significant systemic immune responses. Thus, Stx subunit B vaccine delivered by a patch for a high-risk population may be a practical approach to prevent (and/or reduce) Stx-induced pathology.
  C. Zhu , H. Xu , J. Zhang , K. Wang and P. Zhu
  Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) molecules belong to intracellular proteins that inhibit Janus kinase as well as signal transduction and activators of transcription pathways. In this study, we investigated whether SOCS-1–silenced dendritic cells (DCs) prolonged allograft survival in rat intestinal transplantation. Donor bone marrow–derived DCs were genetically transfected with SOCS-1 siRNA using liposomes. The level of SOCS-1 expression was quantitated by Western blots. DC function was assessed by MTT in mixed leukocyte reactions. We injected donor-derived SOCS-1 silenced DCs 7 days before heterotopic intestinal transplantation between SD donors and Wistar recipients. We compared untransfected DCs and silenced DCs to suppress allogeneic mixed leukocyte reactions. Recipients pretreated with SOCS-1–silenced DCs showed moderate survival prolongation with a mean allograft survival of 18.3 ± 5.3 days (P < .05), compared with 6.4 ± 2.0 days in the control group and 7.2 ± 2.1 days in a control siRNA transfection DC group. The difference between untreated DCs group and the control group was not significant. In summary, SOCS-1 silenced DCs induced allogeneic T-cell hyporesponsiveness in vitro, promoting allograft survival in rat intestinal transplantation.
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