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Articles by C. Zhao
Total Records ( 5 ) for C. Zhao
  C. Zhao , Y. Sun , Z.C. Yi , L. Rong , F.Y. Zhuang and Y.B. Fan
  This work compares cell wall regeneration from protoplasts of the fungus Penicillium decumbens under rotary culture (simulated microgravity) and stationary cultures. Using an optimized lytic enzyme mixture, protoplasts were successfully released with a yield of 5.3 x 105 cells/mL. Under simulated microgravity conditions, the protoplast regeneration efficiency was 33.8%, lower than 44.9% under stationary conditions. Laser scanning confocal microscopy gave direct evidence for reduced formation of polysaccharides under simulated conditions. Scanning electron microscopy showed the delayed process of cell wall regeneration by simulated microgravity. The delayed regeneration of P. decumbens cell wall under simulated microgravity was likely caused by the inhibition of polysaccharide synthesis. This research contributes to the understanding of how gravitational loads affect morphological and physiological processes of fungi.
  D. Nichols , K. Lewis , J. Orjala , S. Mo , R. Ortenberg , P. O`Connor , C. Zhao , P. Vouros , T. Kaeberlein and S. S. Epstein
  Microorganisms comprise the bulk of biodiversity, but only a small fraction of this diversity grows on artificial media. This phenomenon was noticed almost a century ago, repeatedly confirmed, and termed the "great plate count anomaly." Advances in microbial cultivation improved microbial recovery but failed to explain why most microbial species do not grow in vitro. Here we show that at least some of such species can form domesticated variants capable of growth on artificial media. We also present evidence that small signaling molecules, such as short peptides, may be essential factors in initiating growth of nongrowing cells. We identified one 5-amino-acid peptide, LQPEV, that at 3.5 nM induces the otherwise "uncultivable" strain Psychrobacter sp. strain MSC33 to grow on standard media. This demonstrates that the restriction preventing microbial in vitro growth may be different from those offered to date to explain the "great plate count anomaly," such as deficiencies in nutrient composition and concentrations in standard media, medium toxicity, and inappropriate incubation time. Growth induction of MSC33 illustrates that some microorganisms do not grow in vitro because they are removed from their native communities and the signals produced therein. "Uncultivable" species represent the largest source of unexplored biodiversity, and provide remarkable opportunities for both basic and applied research. Access to cultures of some of these species should be possible through identification of the signaling compounds necessary for growth, their addition to standard medium formulations, and eventual domestication.
  M. Song , W. Han , H. Bao , C. Liu , C. Wu and C. Zhao
  In the present study, embryo liver tissues collected from hypoxic incubation of Tibet chicken and Shouguang chicken were analyzed on their histological structures and antioxidant capacity as well as differential proteomics to study the mechanism of Tibet chicken’s adaptability to hypoxia. The results of histological study conducted with paraffin and ultrathin sections showed that Shouguang chicken had a weaker liver structure with less cell layers and the development of its liver was more impaired compared with Tibet chicken and Tibet chicken maintained relatively better mitochondria than Shouguang chicken. The content of Maleic dialdehyde in Tibet chicken was lower than Shougguang chicken, but the total antioxidant capacity and the content of Superoxide Dismutase in Tibet chicken were higher than Shouguang chicken. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we identified 8 differential expression liver proteins between Tibet chicken and Shouguang chicken, in which 6 proteins (enolase I, pyruvate dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase, superoxide dismutase and apolipoprotein A-I) showed higher expression level in Tibet chicken than that in Shouguang chicken while the expressions of the other 2 proteins (Triose phosphate isomerase, adenosine 5-diphosphosugar pyrophosphatase) were less in livers of Tibet chicken. These results indicated that Tibet chicken had higher glucose oxidation level, electron transfer efficiency and antioxidant ability than Shouguang chicken under the hypoxic condition and these differences made Tibet chicken have better adaptability to hypoxia than Lowland chicken. The study made a good basis for the further study of the genetic mechanism of adaptation to hypoxia.
  H. Yuan and C. Zhao
  3T3-L1 cell line is a model for studying adipose differentiation. Transcription factor 21 (Tcf21) positively regulates bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) expression, while BMP4 can up regulate differentiation of white adipocytes. So Tcf21 is a gene in the pathway of regulation of white adipocyte differentiation. In the present study, results of oil and red O staining showed that 3T3-L1 preadipocytes successfully differentiated into adipocytes by inducers. The RNA of mice white adipose tissues were harvested from the peri-uterine fat pads of female and the epidydimal fat pads of male KUNMING (KM) mice and RT-PCR results showed that Tcf21 expressed in primary white adipocytes and tissues of mice while its expression was not detectable in 3T3-L1 cell differentiation (from 3 to 192 h). So conclusion was draw that 3T3-L1 cell line can not reveal completely white adipogenesis in vivo and Tcf21 was absent in the pathway of regulation of 3T3-L1 adipose differentiation.
  C. Zhao , Q. Luo , F. He , F. Peng , X. Xia , F. Huang and X. Yu


To determine the relationship between HbA1c and mean blood glucose concentrations by using HbA1c-mean blood glucose formulae for people on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.


A total of 305 people on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, including 13 people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus, 161 people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and 131 people without diabetes, from a single peritoneal dialysis centre at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, were enrolled between January 2006 and June 2011. Serum HbA1c concentration was measured quarterly and other laboratory variables, including blood glucose, were measured every month. The formulae were established using regression analysis and adjusted for other factors. The estimated blood glucose level calculated using our formulae was compared with that using previous formulae namely the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and A1c-Derived Average Glucose formulae for people not on dialysis and the Hoshino formula for people on haemodialysis.


The HbA1c-mean blood glucose formulae obtained by linear regression analysis were: 1) mBGmmol/l = 0.107 x HbA1c(mmol/mol) + 1.764 [adjusted R2 (inline image)  = 0.494]; 2) mBGmmol/l = 0.101 x HbA1c (mmol/mol) − 0.001 x Cr (μmol/l) + 2.850 (inline image = 0.507); 3) mBGmmol/l = 0.102 x HbA1c (mmol/mol) − 0.095 x Alb (g/l) + 5.394 (inline image = 0.521); and 4) mBGmmol/l  = 0.099 x HbA1c (mmol/mol) − 0.001 x Cr (μmol/l)−0.084 x Alb (g/l) + 5.754 (inline image = 0.526), where mBG is mean blood glucose, Cr is serum creatinine and Alb is serum albumin. These new formulae performed as well as or better than previous formulae.


The relationship between HbA1c and mean blood glucose for people on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis differs from that for people not on dialysis or for those on haemodialysis. Clinicians and patients can determine glycaemic control targets by applying our formulae.

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