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Articles by C. Sun
Total Records ( 2 ) for C. Sun
  Q Zhang , F Yao , M. K Raizada , S. T O'Rourke and C. Sun
 

The peripheral apelin system plays a significant role in cardiovascular homeostasis and in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. However, the central effect of this neurohormonal system in neural control of cardiovascular function remains poorly understood. Thus, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of apelin in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) on blood pressure, cardiac function, and sympathetic nerve activity. Apelin mRNA and protein levels were detected with real-time RT-PCR and Western blots, respectively. Expression of apelin was significantly enhanced in the RVLM of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) compared with normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats. To study the functional consequence of upregulated apelin expression, apelin was overexpressed by bilateral microinjection of the AAV2-apelin viral vector into the RVLM of WKY rats. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blots demonstrated that microinjection of AAV2-apelin into the RVLM resulted in a significant increase in apelin expression, which was associated with a chronic elevation in blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, direct microinjection of exogenous apelin-13 (200 pmol in 50 nL) into the RVLM caused a 20 mm Hg elevation in blood pressure and a 24% increase in sympathetic nerve activity. The present study is the first to show that apelin expression is enhanced in the RVLM of SHR versus WKY rats and that overexpression of this gene in the RVLM results in chronic blood pressure elevation and cardiac hypertrophy in normotensive rats. Thus, the apelin system in the RVLM may play a very important role in central blood pressure regulation and in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  Z. Pei , X. Chen , C. Sun , H. Du , H. Wei , W. Song , Y. Yang , M. Zhang , W. Lu , R. Cheng and F. Luo
 

Aims

To examine single nucleotide polymorphisms in the protein tyrosine phosphatase N22 gene (PTPN22) and to study their association with Type 1 diabetes in a Chinese cohort.

Methods

Three hundred and sixty-four young patients with Type 1 diabetes and 719 healthy children were included in this case-controlled study. The genotypes of rs1217385, rs2488457 (-1123C>G), rs1217414, rs1217419, rs3765598 and rs2476601 (1858C>T) in the PTPN22 gene were determined using the SNaPshot method. Alleles, genotypes and haplotype frequencies were compared between patients with Type 1 diabetes and healthy control subjects. The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and clinical traits/autoantibody status was also analysed.

Results

The single nucleotide polymorphism, rs1217419, located in the second intron of the PTPN22 gene was associated with Type 1 diabetes (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.14-1.97, P = 0.003). An additional single nucleotide polymorphism, rs1217385, was also associated with Type 1 diabetes; however, the association was secondary to that of rs1217419. The previously reported single nucleotide polymorphism that is associated with Type 1 diabetes (-1123G>C) had only marginal association with Type 1 diabetes in our study. A marginal association was also identified between -1123G>C and glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody positivity in patients with Type 1 diabetes. There was no association between the single nucleotide polymorphism 1858C>T and Type 1 diabetes in our studied cohort.

Conclusions

Our study confirmed that PTPN22 is a gene that contributes to Type 1 diabetes susceptibility. The primary association occurs with single nucleotide polymorphism rs1217419 and there is clear heterogeneity of the association between PTPTN22 polymorphisms and Type 1 diabetes in a Chinese population compared with other populations.

 
 
 
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