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Articles by C. Sumantri
Total Records ( 8 ) for C. Sumantri
  K.W. Kia , I.I. Arief , C. Sumantri and C. Budiman
  This study aims to demonstrate the efficiency of antibacterial activity of plantaricin IIA-1A5 in meatball when stored at room temperature. The results revealed addition of plantaricin IIA-1A5 to meatball reduced population of contaminant pathogenic bacteria of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the application of 0.3% plantaricin IIA-1A5 extends the shelf life of the meatball to up to 20 h at room temperature based on its microbiology quality, as stated by the Indonesian National Standard for meatball products. The ability of plantaricin IIA-1A5 in retarding the growth of these pathogenic bacteria is comparable to that of 0.3% nitrite, which has been widely used. In addition, Aw and pH values of meatball in the absence (or in the presence) of nitrite or plantaricin did not significantly vary. This implies that reducing the population of pathogenic bacteria was indeed affected by nitrite or plantaricin IIA-1A5. Overall, this result demonstrated that the use of plantaricin IIA-1A5 as a nitrite replacer is promising.
  M.H. Tamzil , R.R. Noor , P.S. Hardjosworo , W. Manalu and C. Sumantri
  An experiment was conducted to study the response of three chicken lines with different HSP 70 genotypes to acute heat stress. Twenty eight kampong chicken (native chicken, with seven genotypes i.e., AA, AB, AC, CC, AD, DD and BC) and twenty four Arabic chicken (with six genotypes i.e., AA, AB, AC, CC, AD and BC) and four commercial chickens (with one genotype i.e., DD) were used and randomly allocated in a factorial arrangement into groups which their HSP 70 genotypes had been identified. Acute heat stress was exposed at 40°C for 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 h, respectively, using chamber in 33 x 33 x 75 cm3. Parameters measured were the onset of panting (minute), panting frequency (times/minute), feed consumption (g/minute), water consumption (mL/minute), manure water content (%), rectal temperature (°C), serum corticosterone concentration (μg/dL) and HSP 70 expression (copy mRNA). The result of this study showed that there was an interaction between chicken lines and acute heat stress exposure on water consumption and manure water content. Chicken lines affected panting frequencies and manure water content but it did not affect the onset of panting, feed and water consumptions, rectal temperature, serum corticosterone concentration and expression of HSP 70. Acute heat stress increased panting frequency, drinking water consumption, manure water content, rectal temperature, serum corticosterone concentration, HSP 70 expression and it decreased feed consumption. The highest response on panting frequency, rectal temperature, serum corticosterone concentration and expression of HSP 70 was found in the DD genotype and the lowest in AD genotype. The most rapid onset of panting occurred in DD genotype and the slowest in AD genotype. The study revealed interaction between chicken lines and HSP 70 genotypes in heat resistance. Kampong chicken had the highest heat resistance as compared to Arabic and commercial chickens but HSP 70 genotypes that was the most tolerant to high ambient temperature was AD genotype where as the lowest tolerant was DD genotype.
  M.H. Tamzil , R.R. Noor , P.S. Hardjosworo , W. Manalu and C. Sumantri
  Hematological responses in chicken with different HSP 70 genotypes to acute heat stress were studied using 28 kampong chickens, 24 Arabic chickens and 4 commercial chickens. The experimental chickens were selected randomly from a group of chickens with HSP 70 genotypes identified and were exposed to ambient temperature (40°C) for 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 h. Results showed that erythrocyte, hematocrit and leukocyte in all chicken lines decreased in response to acute heat stress with the highest decrease in commercial chickens, followed by Arabic and kampong chickens. Regardless of acute heat stress exposure, there was no significant difference in erythrocyte, hemoglobin, leukocyte, heterophil, eosinophil, basophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio in all chicken lines studied. Arabic and commercial chickens had lower hematocrit as compared to kampong chickens. However, acute heat stress increased the percentage of heterophil, basophil, lymphocyte and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio without affecting eosinophil and monocyte. It was found that there was no interaction between lines of chicken and acute heat-stress exposure on the hematological parameters measured. The lowest percentage of lymphocytes was found in chickens with DD HSP 70 genotype while the highest was found in chickens with AD genotype. The results indicated that there was a relationship of heat resistance or tolerance to lymphocyte expression. Chickens that were the most tolerant to acute heat stress had the highest lymphocyte percentage (AD genotype) whereas those that were the least tolerant had the lowest lymphocyte percentage (DD genotype).
  N. Ulupi , Muladno , C. Sumantri and I.W.T. Wibawan
  Kampung chicken eggs play an important role as substance in 'jamu preparation' in Indonesia, mostly provided and consumed without cooking. Salmonella free eggs become significant in producing the safe 'jamu preparation' and such eggs might be produced by chickens which have high resistance to this bacteria. One of excellent markers showing resistance of chicken against Salmonella is an active Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) gene. TLR4 is a phagocytes cell surface receptor that plays a role to recognize lipopolysaccharide of gram negative bacteria including Salmonella enteritidis. It is transcribed by TLR4 gene and conserved in the activation of the non-specific immune system. The aim of the research is to prove resistance of Kampung chicken when was challenged with S. enteritidis, using TLR4 gene as marker. TLR4 gene was genotyped in 50 Kampung chickens with PCR-RFLP. Then all the Kampung chickens were challenged with S. enteritidis (ID50:5×105 CFU/mL). Their expression on resistance against S. enteritidis as well as biological and molecular assays were measured. The genotyping result identified 3 genotypes of TLR4 gene: AA, AG and GG. All parameters including expression of TLR4 gene, concentration of leucocytes, differentiation of leucocytes, macrophages activity and capacity were not significantly different in AG and GG genotypes. There was no S. enteritidis finding in blood and eggs produced by AA, AG and GG chickens. There was found IgY specific to S. enteritidis in eggs yolk with very high concentration (2.94-3.89 mg/mL). The study proved that Kampung chicken resistant to S. enteritidis infection in all condition.
  M. Muhsinin , N. Ulupi , A. Gunawan , IWT. Wibawan and C. Sumantri
  Background: Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein-1 gene (NRAMP1) plays an important role in immune response against intracellular pathogens. Objective: This study was aimed at identifying NRAMP1 polymorphisms and their association with immune traits in Indonesian native chickens. Methodology: Genetic polymorphism of chickens was investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment polymorphism. The concentrations of leukocytes and differentiation (heterophile, lymphocyte and monocyte) were assessed by the Giemsa method and immune traits were detected by followed clearance test. Results: The results showed that NRAMP1 was polymorphic in all native chickens. The CC genotype was significantly higher than CT and TT genotypes (p<0.05) in Sentul chickens resistant to Salmonella pullorum. Although, the concentrations of leukocytes and differentiation in chickens with all three of NRAMP1 genotypes (CC, CT and TT) were not statistically different, there was a significant correlation between different NRAMP1 genotypes and immune traits. Therfore, NRAMP1 is proposed to be a disease resistance candidate gene. Conclusion: However, this study should be validated in other chicken populations to evaluate the potential exploitation of NRAMP1 in selective breeding.
  A. Furqon , A. Gunawan , N. Ulupi , T. Suryati and C. Sumantri
  Background and Objective: Very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) is a major class of lipoprotein particles that is synthesized and secreted by the liver. Selection for economic traits based on molecular marker assisted selection are required to increase production performance. The present study was designed to analyze associations of very low density Apo lipoprotein II (ApoVLDLII) gene polymorphisms with body composition traits. Kampung chicken, a native chicken in Indonesia, is slow-growing chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 male Kampung chickens were used in the current study. Body compositions were measured in 12 and 26 weeks of age. Primers for intron 1 region were designed from genomic chicken sequence. A G634A SNP of the ApoVLDLII gene intron 1 region was detected and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was then used for genotyping of Kampung chicken population. Results: The ApoVLDLII polymorphism was significantly associated with body, carcass, breast, thigh, back and thigh muscle weight in 26 weeks old Kampung chicken population (p<0.05). In 12 weeks old Kampung chicken, ApoVLDLII polymorphism was not significantly associated with body composition traits. Conclusion: It is concluded that the ApoVLDLII gene could be a candidate gene that affects growth and body composition traits in chicken.
  J. Mamutse , A. Gunawan , C. Sumantri , S. Murtini and T. Sartika
  Background and Objective: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myxovirus (Mx) genes have been demonstrated to confer resistance to Salmonella and Newcastle disease (ND), respectively. These genes have not yet been investigated in Sentul chickens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the polymorphisms and association of the TLR4 and Mx genes as candidate genes underlying resistance to Salmonella and ND in selected Sentul chickens. Methodology: One hundred and eighty-five Sentul chickens were genotyped using PCR-RFLP. The genotype and allele frequencies, polymorphic information contents and Hardy-weinberg equilibrium (HWE) statuses were analysed. The genotypes were associated with immunoglobulin Y (IgY), Salmonella-specific antibodies and Newcastle disease-specific antibodies. These parameters were determined using indirect ELISA, clearance tests and haemagglutination inhibition, respectively. The immune traits were further grouped into high, medium and low categories. The data were analysed using the GLM and t-test. Results: Polymorphisms in TLR4|MscI and Mx|Hpy8I were observed. The population was in HWE for both genes. The frequencies of the TLR4 allele G and genotype GG were significantly high (p<0.05) in chickens with high immune traits. The genotype GG of TLR4 gene recorded significantly higher immune traits than genotypes AG and AA. For the Mx gene, the frequency of allele A was higher than of allele G at a high IgY titre. Conclusion: TLR4|MscI and Mx|Hpy8I are potential markers for selection against Salmonella and Newcastle disease in Sentul chickens. However, further investigations are recommended.
  K. Subekti , D. Duryadi Solihin , R. Afnan , A. Gunawan and C. Sumantri
  Background and Objective: Tropical ambient temperature conditions that exceed comfortable temperatures for ducks and changes in maintenance systems from traditional to intensive conditions under low confined water cause ducks to have thermoregulation difficulties, causing the ducks to experience heat stress. The heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene, a known marker gene of heat resistance, can be a gene candidate for the selection of heat-resistant traits in local ducks to cope with heat stress. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms and the mRNA expression of the HSP70 gene under heat stress conditions. Materials and Methods: Genotyping was performed on 110 local duck breeds from West Sumatra (Pitalah, Bayang, Kamang and Payakumbuh). Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP) and Sanger sequencing assays were used to identify polymorphisms. Polymorphism analysis was conducted with the MEGA 7 software. mRNA expression was identified in 12 liver tissue samples from 12 local ducks (3 birds of each local duck breed) under control conditions or heat stress treatment performed at 35°C for 1 or 2 h. Results: The amplification product was 466-bp. HSP70/HhaI was polymorphic in all the breeds and two SNPs (Single nucleotide Polymorphism), g.1696G >A and g. 1762C >T, were recognized in all the HSP70/HhaI loci. The g.1696g >A locus produced two alleles (A and G) with three genotypes (AA, AG and GG) and the g. 1762C >T locus also produced two alleles (T and C) with three genotypes (TT, TC and CC). The analysis showed that the G allele had a higher frequency than that of the A allele and the T allele had a higher frequency than that of the allele C in all breeds. χ2 analysis showed that all the local duck breeds fit the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The relative expression of the HSP70 gene mRNA in the liver and ovary tissues showed that heat stress had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the local ducks in the same breed. After 1 h of heat treatment, liver tissues from the Payakumbuh ducks showed the highest HSP70 mRNA expression, while after 2 h of treatment, the highest HSP70 mRNA expression was observed in the Bayang ducks. After the heat treatment of the ovarian tissues for 1 and 2 h, the Bayang ducks showed the highest HSP70 mRNA expression. Conclusion: HSP70 gene polymorphism and mRNA expression can be used as a candidate marker to increase heat resistance in ducks.
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