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Articles by C. Meisinger
Total Records ( 7 ) for C. Meisinger
  B Kuch , W von Scheidt , A Ehmann , B Kling , C Greschik , A Hoermann and C. Meisinger

Background— No data exist regarding time trends of 28-day case fatality (CF) of patients with presumed acute myocardial infarction (AMI) using epidemiological criteria, clinical criteria, and AMI classification after validation of presumed in-hospital AMI-related deaths (gold-standard criteria).

Methods and Results— From 1985 to 2004, we prospectively examined all 9210 AMI patients consecutively hospitalized in a large teaching hospital by using a broad epidemiological AMI definition (WHO-MONICA). Twenty-eight-day CF decreased significantly from 32% in 1985–1986 to 18% in 2003–2004, mostly because of a reduction in early deaths (<24 hours). When applying the clinical AMI definition, most of the early deaths were not counted as AMI related. A retrospective validation process from a sample of all early deceased patients by the epidemiological AMI definition (388/2076) and a prospective validation of the complete cohort in 2005–2006 revealed that only about 50% of early deaths are reclassified as a real fatal AMI using newer criteria resulting in a 28-day CF of 23% in 1985–1986 and 11% in 2005–2006. The difference between the AMI 28-day CF by applying gold-standard criteria and the clinical AMI 28-day CF (18% in 1985–1986 and 7% in 2005–2006) has decreased during recent years.

Conclusions— The application of broad epidemiological criteria for AMI overestimates 28-day CF by almost 2-fold compared with gold-standard criteria (after validation of early deaths) and almost 3-fold compared to the clinical definition. The growing similarity in 28-day CF between the clinically based definition and the gold-standard criteria implies that recent clinical-based registries may represent a realistic picture of trends regarding in-hospital AMI mortality.

  W. Rathmann , K. Strassburger , M. Heier , R. Holle , B. Thorand , G. Giani and C. Meisinger
  Aims:To determine the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in an elderly population in Germany and its association with clinical and lifestyle factors.
Methods:Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT, World Health Organization criteria) were carried out in a random sample of 1353 subjects (age group 55–74 years; 62% response) in Augsburg (Southern Germany) (1999–2001). The cohort was re-investigated in 2006–2008. Of those individuals without diabetes (baseline), 887 (74%) participated in the follow-up.
Results:Ninety-three (10.5%) developed diabetes during the 7-year follow-up period {standardized incidence rates [95% confidence interval (CI)] per 1000 person-years: total 15.5; 12.6, 19.1; men 20.2; 15.6, 26.1; women 11.3; 7.9, 16.1}. In both sexes, those who developed diabetes were slightly older, were more obese, had a more adverse metabolic profile (higher glucose values, HbA1c, fasting insulin, uric acid, and triglycerides) and were more likely to have hypertension at baseline than were participants remaining free of diabetes (P < 0.05). On stepwise logistic regression, age, parental diabetes, body mass index, uric acid, current smoking, HbA1c and fasting and 2-h glucose (OGTT) were strong predictors of diabetes incidence. The risk of diabetes was higher in subjects with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (odds ratio 8.8; 95% CI 5.0, 15.6) than in isolated impaired fasting glucose (4.7; 2.2, 10.0), although the difference did not reach statistical significance.
Conclusions:For the first time, we have estimated the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in an elderly German cohort and demonstrated that it is among the highest in Europe. The OGTT appears to be useful in identifying individuals with high Type 2 diabetes risk. Our results support a role of smoking in the progression to diabetes.
  B. Thorand , A. Zierer , J. Baumert , C. Meisinger , C. Herder and W. Koenig
  Aims  Adipocyte-derived hormones seem to be involved in the development of Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we assessed the association between the proinflammatory adipokine leptin and incident Type 2 diabetes, taking into account interactions between leptin and the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin.

Methods  Using a case-cohort design, serum levels of adipokines were measured in 460 cases with incident Type 2 diabetes and 1474 non-cases selected from a source population of 7936 middle-aged subjects participating in the population-based Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA)/Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) Augsburg cohort study between 1984 and 1995 and followed up until 2002 (mean follow-up 10.9±4.7 years).

Results  High leptin and low adiponectin levels were associated with an increased Type 2 diabetes risk. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing tertile extremes were 1.71 (1.12-2.63) for leptin (top vs. bottom tertile) and 2.65 (1.88-3.76) for adiponectin (bottom vs. top tertile), respectively. There was a significant interaction between leptin and adiponectin, with highest diabetes risk being observed in individuals with high leptin and low adiponectin levels (P = 0.029 for interaction).While the addition of adiponectin to a basic risk factor model improved model prediction (Δ area under the curve 0.011), the change in model prediction was only marginal after the addition of leptin (Δ area under the curve 0.002).

Conclusions  Our findings indicate that the two adipokines leptin and adiponectin interact in modulating Type 2 diabetes risk, but adiponectin is more strongly associated with Type 2 diabetes risk than leptin.

  W. Rathmann , B. Kowall , M. Heier , C. Herder , R. Holle , B. Thorand , K. Strassburger , A. Peters , H.-E. Wichmann , G. Giani and C. Meisinger
  Background  The aim was to derive Type 2 diabetes prediction models for the older population and to check to what degree addition of 2-h glucose measurements (oral glucose tolerance test) and biomarkers improves the predictive power of risk scores which are based on non-biochemical as well as conventional clinical parameters.

Methods  Oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out in a population-based sample of 1353 subjects, aged 55-74 years (62% response) in Augsburg (Southern Germany) from 1999 to 2001. The cohort was reinvestigated in 2006-2008. Of those individuals without diabetes at baseline, 887 (74%) participated in the follow-up. Ninety-three (10.5%) validated diabetes cases occurred during the follow-up. In logistic regression analyses for model 1, variables were selected from personal characteristics and additional variables were selected from routinely measurable blood parameters (model 2) and from 2-h glucose, adiponectin, insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (model 3).

Results  Age, sex, BMI, parental diabetes, smoking and hypertension were selected for model 1. Model 2 additionally included fasting glucose, HbA1c and uric acid. The same variables plus 2-h glucose were selected for model 3. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve significantly increased from 0.763 (model 1) to 0.844 (model 2) and 0.886 (model 3) (P < 0.01). Biomarkers such as adiponectin and insulin did not improve the predictive abilities of models 2 and 3. Cross-validation and bootstrap-corrected model performance indicated high internal validity.

Conclusions  This longitudinal study in an older population provides models to predict the future risk of Type 2 diabetes. The OGTT, but not biomarkers, improved discrimination of incident diabetes.

  C. Meisinger , K. Strassburger , M. Heier , B. Thorand , S. E. Baumeister , G. Giani and W. Rathmann
  Aims  Limited data are available for European populations regarding the prevalence of diabetes and disturbed glucose metabolism in younger individuals. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT) and combined IFG/IGT in a population-based sample (n = 1653) from Southern Germany aged 35-59 years.

Methods  Oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out in all non-diabetic participants of the KORA F4 Study (2006-2008). Diabetes, IGT and IFG were defined according to the 1999 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. The original IFG criteria (6.1-6.9 mmol/l) were used as recommended by the European Diabetes Epidemiology Group.

Results  The age-standardized prevalence was 2.2% for known diabetes, 2.0% for newly detected diabetes, 2.9% for i-IFG, 6.3% for i-IGT and 1.1% for combined IFG/IGT. About half of the cases with overt diabetes were undiagnosed in all age groups. The prevalence of i-IGT was approximately twice as high as that of i-IFG. The proportion of i-IGT varied between 3.2% (age group 35-44 years) and 11.8% (age group 55-59 years); the corresponding numbers for i-IFG were 1.1% and 5.9%. IFG/IGT was present in 1.2% of the total sample, and was most frequently found in the age group 55-59 years (2.4%). Overall, 16% of the study population had either diabetes or abnormalities of glucose metabolism.

Conclusions  The study reveals for the first time a high prevalence of impaired glucose regulation in the younger and middle-aged German population. The detection of disturbed glucose metabolism or diabetes needs to be improved.

  M. Schunk , P. Reitmeir , S. Schipf , H. Volzke , C. Meisinger , B. Thorand , A. Kluttig , K.-H. Greiser , K. Berger , G. Muller , U. Ellert , H. Neuhauser , T. Tamayo , W. Rathmann and R. Holle
  Aims  To estimate population values of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in subjects with and without Type 2 diabetes mellitus across several large population-based survey studies in Germany. Systematic differences in relation to age and sex were of particular interest.

Methods  Individual data from four population-based studies from different regions throughout Germany and the nationwide German National Health Interview and Examination Survey (GNHIES98) were included in a pooled analysis of primary data (N = 9579). HRQL was assessed using the generic index instrument SF-36 (36-item Short Form Health Survey) or its shorter version, the SF-12 (12 items). Regression analysis was carried out to examine the association between Type 2 diabetes and the two component scores derived from the SF-36/SF-12, the physical component summary score (PCS-12) and the mental component summary score (MCS-12), as well as interaction effects with age and sex.

Results  The PCS-12 differed significantly by −4.1 points in subjects with Type 2 diabetes in comparison with subjects without Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes was associated with significantly lower MCS-12 in women only. Higher age was associated with lower PCS-12, but with an increase in MCS-12, for subjects with and without Type 2 diabetes.

Conclusions  Pooled analysis of population-based primary data offers HRQL values for subjects with Type 2 diabetes in Germany, stratified by age and sex. Type 2 diabetes has negative consequences for HRQL, particularly for women. This underlines the burden of disease and the importance of diabetes prevention. Factors that disadvantage women with Type 2 diabetes need to be researched more thoroughly.

  A. Icks , H. Claessen , K. Strassburger , R. Waldeyer , N. Chernyak , F. Julich , W. Rathmann , B. Thorand , C. Meisinger , C. Huth , I.-M. Rückert , M. Schunk , G. Giani and R. Holle


Patient time costs have been described to be substantial; however, data are highly limited. We estimated patient time costs attributable to outpatient and inpatient care in study participants with diagnosed diabetes, previously undetected diabetes, impaired glucose regulation and normal glucose tolerance.


Using data of the population-based KORA S4 study (55-74 years, random sample of n = 350), we identified participants' stage of glucose tolerance by oral glucose tolerance test. To estimate mean patient time costs per year (crude and standardized with respect to age and sex), we used data regarding time spent with ambulatory visits including travel and waiting time and with hospital stays (time valued at a 2011 net wage rate of €20.63/h). The observation period was 24 weeks and data were extrapolated to 1 year.


Eighty-nine to 97% of participants in the four groups (diagnosed diabetes, undetected diabetes, impaired glucose regulation and normal glucose tolerance.) had at least one physician contact and 4-14% at least one hospital admission during the observation period. Patient time [h/year (95% CI)] was 102.0 (33.7-254.8), 53.8 (15.0-236.7), 59.3 (25.1-146.8) and 28.6 (21.1-43.7), respectively. Age-sex standardized patient time costs per year (95% CI) were €2447.1 (804.5-6143.6), €880.4 (259.1-3606.7), €1151.6 (454.6-2957.6) and €589.2 (435.8-904.8).


Patient time costs were substantial-even higher than medication costs in the same study population. They are higher in participants with diagnosed diabetes, but also in those with undetected diabetes and impaired glucose regulation compared with those with normal glucose tolerance. Research is needed in larger populations to receive more precise and certain estimates that can be used in health economic evaluation.

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