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Articles by C. Lopez
Total Records ( 3 ) for C. Lopez
  H. Tormo , C. Agabriel , C. Lopez , D. Ali Haimoud Lekhal and C. Roques
  The balance between microorganisms of technological interest and others in raw goat’s milk have to be controlled to obtain good quality raw milk cheese. The aim of this study was: (1) to determine the microbial characteristics of goat’s milk and (2) to evaluate factors that may have a potential influence (season, management practices). Thirty eight resulting farms were selected. A survey was carried out to qualify the management practices. A total of 228 milk samples were analyzed in spring 2006 and winter 2007. Microorganisms were counted in specific culture media. Statistical analysis was done to study the links between microbial composition of milks and management practices. The average Total Bacterial Count was 3.6 log10 cfu mL-1. The major species were coagulase-negative staphylococci and, to a lesser extent, mesophilic acidifying bacteria, micrococci and corynebacteriaceae. Less than 60% of the milk samples were found to contain coagulase-positive staphylococci at very low levels. The levels of the main groups of microorganisms were significantly lower in Winter 2007. Microbial clusters of milk were established for the two seasons. These clusters differed in the levels of microorganisms, especially in the levels of mesophilic acidifying bacteria and micrococci and corynebacteriaceae. The relationship between management practices and microbial clusters of milk have underlined the importance of mixed practices depending on the season. The nature of the bedding and the temperature of the milking machine cleaning are the two mains factors closely linked to the microbial profile of milks. Present results underlined that it may be possible with a judicious choice of practices to increase the levels of mesophilic acidifying bacteria and micrococci and corynebacteriaceae, bacteria of technological relevance for the cheese making process, without altering the levels of undesirable bacteria (Pseudomonas spp., coagulase-positive staphylococci).
  H. Tormo , A. Delacroix-Buchet , C. Lopez , D. Ali Haimoud Lekhal and C. Roques
  Studies on cow’s milk have already underlined some relationships between management practices and the microbial quality of milk, but only a few have been carried out on goat’s milk. The aim of this study was: (1) to determine the main bacterial species present in goat’s milk and (2) to identify management practices that may have a potential influence on the bacterial species in the milk. The bacterial species present in samples of raw goat’s milk from 30 farms in different regions were characterized by PCR-Temporal Temperature Gradient gel Electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). The predominant bacterial species belonged to the genera Staphylococcus, Arthrobacter and Serratia. Lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis and Enterococcus faecalis) were only detected in 25% of the milk samples. Brevibacterium linens were detected systematically in milk from zero-grazing herds. High standards of hygiene with regard to milking machine cleaning considerably reduced the number of dominant species in the milk; lactic acid bacteria, in particular were no longer detected. On the other hand, inferior hygiene increased the number of species present and E. faecalis was more commonly found. Herd health management was a determining factor in the microbial contamination of the milk samples studied. Inferior health conditions increased contamination of the milk with Serratia and Staphylococcus. Direct contact between the milking parlour and the goats’ housing appeared to enrich the milk in L. lactis. Present results underlined that it may be possible to influence the balance between the bacteria present in milk using certain practices.
  J .L. Vicente , C. Lopez , E. Avila , E. Morales , B. M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  This study evaluated capsaicin extracted from chili pepper and its prophylactic effect on Salmonella enteritidis (SE) experimental infection, feed conversion, egg production, egg weight and yolk pigmentation in laying hens. Dekalb hens (30/treatment) were fed for 28 days with two different levels (18 and 36 ppm) of dietary capsaicin from paprika oil. Both levels (18 and 36 ppm) of dietary capsaicin did not affect the feed conversion, egg production or egg weight. At 25 days, hens were challenged with 108 cfu mL-1 of SE. Three days after inoculation, liver and spleen were collected aseptically and cultured as a combined sample. The higher capsaicin treatment significantly decreased (p<0.05) SE organ invasion (43.44%; 13/30) when it was compared with the low capsaicin treatment (56.67%; 17/30) and control group (76.67%; 23/30). Eggs were collected on day 20 of the trial and the yolk pigmentation was measured directly with a chroma meter CR-300 (Minolta) in the CIELab scale. Both concentrations of dietary capsaicin significantly increased the deposition of red pigment on egg yolk (14.11±1.40 and 17.44±1.90) compared with control group (-1.58±2.65). The results of the present investigation suggest that the natural capsaicin, extracted from paprika seeds at 36 ppm in the diet, had a prophylactic effect on experimental SE infection in laying hens and both concentrations of capsaicin increased red pigmentation of the yolk.
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