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Articles by C. Lee
Total Records ( 3 ) for C. Lee
  Y. K. Shue , P. S. Sears , S. Shangle , R. B. Walsh , C. Lee , S. L. Gorbach , F. Okumu and R. A. Preston
  Current therapies for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are encumbered by treatment failures and recurrences. Due to its high in vitro activity against C. difficile but low activity against the typical intestinal flora, minimal absorption, and durable cure in the hamster model of C. difficile infection, OPT-80 was considered for clinical development as a therapy for CDI. This trial consisted of two phases. Four single oral doses of OPT-80 (100, 200, 300, and 450 mg) were administered in a crossover manner to 16 healthy volunteers in a double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1A study; a 1- to 2-week washout interval separated the treatments. In the double-blind phase 1B study, 24 healthy subjects were randomized to receive OPT-80 (150, 300, or 450 mg) or placebo for 10 days. In both studies, OPT-80's safety and tolerability were evaluated and the concentrations of OPT-80 and its primary metabolite (OP-1118) in plasma and feces were determined. OPT-80 levels in the urine were also analyzed for the phase 1A study. In both the single-dose and the multiple-dose studies, OPT-80 was well tolerated by all subjects in all dose groups. Maximal plasma concentrations were near or below the limit of quantification (5 ng/ml) across the dose range; urine concentrations were below the detection limit. The fecal total recovery of OPT-80 plus its major metabolite, OP-1118, approximated 100%. The tolerability, high fecal concentration, and low systemic exposure data from these studies support the further clinical development of OPT-80 as an oral therapy for CDI.
  D Jee , D Lee , S Yun and C. Lee

Magnesium is well known to inhibit catecholamine release and attenuate vasopressin-stimulated vasoconstriction. We investigated whether i.v. magnesium sulphate attenuates the haemodynamic stress responses to pneumoperitoneum by changing neurohumoral responses during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.


Thirty-two patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to two groups; a control group was given saline, and a magnesium group received magnesium sulphate 50 mg kg–1 immediately before pneumoperitoneum. Arterial pressure, heart rate, serum magnesium, plasma renin activity (PRA), and catecholamine, cortisol, and vasopressin levels were measured.


Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures were greater in the control group (P<0.05) than in the magnesium group at 10, 20, and 30 min post-pneumoperitoneum. Norepinephrine or epinephrine levels [pg ml–1, mean (sd)] were higher in the control group than in the magnesium group at 5 [211 (37) vs 138 (18)] or 10 min [59 (19) vs 39 (9)] post-pneumoperitoneum, respectively (P<0.05). In the control group, vasopressin levels [pg ml–1, mean (sd)] were higher compared with the magnesium group at 5 [64 (18) vs 35 (9), P<0.01] and 10 min [65 (18) vs 47 (11), P<0.05] post-pneumoperitoneum. There were no significant differences between the groups in PRA and cortisol levels.


I.V. magnesium sulphate before pneumoperitoneum attenuates arterial pressure increases during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This attenuation is apparently related to reductions in the release of catecholamine, vasopressin, or both.

  J Lee , H. J Lee and C. Lee

As the integration scale of a chip increases, on-chip interconnects suffer from the increased area occupied by a large number of bus signals. To reduce the overhead for communication, this paper formulates a new concept of an on-chip communication approach, called phase-based interconnection, with an example protocol, system-on-chip network protocol (SNP). In the phase-based communication, a small number of signals called phase signals are used to distinguish the types of signals transmitted through the main communication channel. To identify transactions transmitted through the channel, the SNP protocol defines the allowed sequence of phases for each transaction. A theoretical framework provides conditions for a phase-based protocol to allow immediate decoding of transactions. Simulation results show that the bandwidth of SNP is greater than that of a de facto standard bus protocol although SNP has wires only about three-fifths of the standard bus protocol. Although the signal-toggling rate is increased because of the multiplexed transmission of various signals through a single communication channel, simulation results show that the increase is not significant for multimedia applications that frequently transmit burst transfers. The phase omission of SNP helps to reduce the transaction failure rate to 65% while the hardware implementation cost for the support of phase omission is negligible.

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