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Articles by C. E. Lloyd
Total Records ( 4 ) for C. E. Lloyd
  K. D. Barnard , C. E. Lloyd and T. C. Skinner

Aim To review systematically the published literature addressing whether continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) provides any quality of life benefits to people with Type 1 diabetes.

Methods Electronic databases and published references were searched and a consultation with two professional groups was undertaken to identify relevant studies published up to July 2005. A multistep selection process was then undertaken to identify those articles which met the specific selection criteria, which were then critically reviewed.

Results Eighty-four potential relevant articles were identified from examination of titles and abstracts published during the specified time frame. Of these, 28 articles were retrieved in full text, of which 17 fulfilled the specific criteria for inclusion. Mixed results emerged from existing literature. Of the five randomized controlled trials, three reported mixed results, with one study reporting quality of life benefits and one reporting no evidence of quality of life benefits.

Conclusions There is conflicting evidence reported in the various studies on the quality of life benefits of CSII in Type 1 diabetes. Existing research is flawed, making a judgement about the quality of life benefits of insulin pump use difficult. There is no strong evidence against quality of life benefits associated with CSII or otherwise, with poor methodology and inconsistent assessment of quality of life clouding the issue. The lack of reported benefit is probably a function of this rather than pump therapy not offering any quality of life benefits.

  C. E. Lloyd
  Not available
  T. Roy , C. E. Lloyd , F. Pouwer , R. I. G. Holt and N Sartorius
  Background  Depression is common in patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, has a strong negative impact on the quality of life of patients and is associated with poor outcomes and higher mortality rates. Several guidelines encourage screening of patients with diabetes for depression. It is unclear which depression screening tools are currently being used in people with diabetes and which are most appropriate.

Methods  A systematic review was conducted to examine which depression screening instruments are currently being used in diabetes research, and the operating characteristics of these tools in diabetes populations. Literature searches for the period January 1970 to October 2010 were conducted using MEDLINE, PSYCH-INFO, ASSIA, SCOPUS, ACADEMIC SEARCH COMPLETE, CINAHL and SCIENCE DIRECT.

Results  Data are presented for the 234 published studies that were examined. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were the most popular screening tools (used in 24% and 21% of studies). Information on the cultural applicability of screening tools was mostly unavailable and, where reported, included only details of the language translation process. A small number of studies reported reliability data, most of which showed moderate-good sensitivity and specificity but a high rate of false positives.

Conclusions  Although a range of depression screening tools have been used in research, there remains few data on their reliability and validity. Information on the cultural applicability of these instruments is even scantier. Further research is required in order to determine the suitability of screening tools for use in clinical practice and to address the increasing problem of co-morbid diabetes and depression.

  K. D. Barnard , C. E. Lloyd , P. A. Dyson , M. J. Davies , S. O`Neil , K. Naresh , J. Lawton , R. Ziegler and R. I. G. Holt
  National Audit Data highlight persistent sub-optimum control among increasing numbers of people living with diabetes, with severe consequences for the individual and the NHS. The aim of the present review was to introduce a new cohesive, holistic model of care, tailored to individual needs to support optimum diabetes outcomes. This model of diabetes is necessary in order to understand the driving forces behind behaviour and their impact on diabetes management. Feelings (an emotional state or reaction) and beliefs (an acceptance that something is true or real) are fundamental behavioural drivers and influence diabetes self-management choices. Individually, these explain some of the complexities of behaviour and, collectively, they impact on personal motivation (rationale/desire to act) to achieve a specific outcome. Inevitably, they independently affect diabetes self-management and the environment in which individuals live. A model of care that proposes the encompassing of environment, intrinsic thought and therapy regimens to provide tailored, personalized healthcare should support enhanced diabetes self-management and outcomes from diagnosis. The Kaleidoscope model of care could be deliverable in routine care, incorporating each of the influences on diabetes self-management, and should benefit both individuals with diabetes and healthcare professionals.
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