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Articles by C. Ashwell
Total Records ( 2 ) for C. Ashwell
  O.T. Foye , C. Ashwell , Z. Uni and P.R. Ferket
  In-ovo Feeding (IOF), injecting nutrients into the amnion of the developing embryo may enhance post-hatch growth by enhancing intestinal expression and function prior to hatch. This hypothesis was evaluated with IOF solutions of Arginine (ARG), HMB and Egg White Protein (EW) in turkeys. Four treatments were arranged as a factorial of 2 levels of ARG (0 and 0.7%) and HMB (0 and 0.1%). An IOF solution of EW (18%) was evaluated for contrast. At 23 d of incubation (23E) each IOF solution was injected into the amnion. Upon hatch all poults were fed ad libitum. Intestinal mRNA of the digestion/absorption related genes Sodium Glucose Transporter (SGLT), Peptide transporter (Pept), Sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and Aminopepdiase (AP) were determined at 25E, hatch, 3 and 7 d by real-time PCR analysis. The data was analyzed as a 2X2 factorial and 1-way ANOVA for contrast. There were significant ARG X HMB effects on Pept, SGLT, SI and AP mRNA levels at hatch. IOF HMB alone enhanced Pept, SGLT, SI and AP intestinal mRNA expression at hatch, whereas inclusion of ARG depressed expression. There were main and independent effects of HMB or ARG on mRNA expression of SI and AP at 25E, in which ARG alone depressed expression, while IOF HMB alone had no effect on SI or AP expression. These results suggest that IOF may enhance early growth by improving intestinal capacity to digest and absorb nutrients at hatch which may fuel more rapid post-hatch growth.
  B Dorshorst , R Okimoto and C. Ashwell

The Silkie chicken has been a model of melanoctye precursor and neural crest cell migration and proliferation in the developing embryo due to its extensive hyperpigmentation of dermal and connective tissues. Although previous studies have focused on the distribution and structure of the Silkie's pigment or the general mechanisms by which this phenotype presents itself, the causal genetic variants have not been identified. Classical breeding experiments have determined this trait to be controlled by 2 interacting genes, the sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin (Id) and autosomal fibromelanosis (Fm) genes. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-trait association analysis was used to detect genomic regions showing significant association with these pigmentation genes in 2 chicken mapping populations designed to segregate independently for Id and Fm. The SNP showing the highest association with Id was located at 72.3 Mb on chromosome Z and 10.3–13.1 Mb on chromosome 20 showed the highest association with Fm. Prior to this study, the linkage group to which Fm belonged was unknown. Although the primary focus of this study was to identify loci contributing to dermal pigmentation in the Silkie chicken, loci associated with various other morphological traits segregating in these populations were also detected. A single SNP in a highly conserved cis-regulatory region of Sonic Hedgehog was significantly associated with polydactyly (Po). Genomic regions in association with silkie feathering or hookless (h), feathered legs (Pti), vulture hock (V), rose comb (R), and duplex comb (D) were also identified.

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