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Articles by C. Akkasaeng
Total Records ( 13 ) for C. Akkasaeng
  S. Ekvised , S. Jogloy , C. Akkasaeng , M. Keerati- kasikorn , T. Kesmala , I. Buddhasimma and A. Patanothai
  Selection of an efficient, simple and accurate screening method is important in a varietal evaluation program. The objective of this study was to evaluate reactions of peanut lines to natural thrips infestation using thrips number parameters and thrips damage parameters to identify which parameters were consistent and most suitable in separating the difference of peanut lines. Another objective was to evaluate appropriate assessment times. A randomized complete block design with six replications was used at three environments. Data were recorded for adult thrips number. Juvenile thrips number, total thrips number, Percentage of damaged plants, percentage of damaged leaves and thrips damage rating at 30, 0, 0, 0 and 70 Days After Planting (DAP). Sticky traps were also used to monitor thrips abundance in environment 3 and found that Scirtothrips dorsalis was the most abundant species accounting for 48.7% of total adult thrips number. Differences among cultivars for adult thrips number and total thrips number were observed at 40, 0, 0 and 70 DAP, but not at 30 DAP. Differences among cultivars for juvenile thrips number were observed at 60 and 70 DAP. The differences among cultivars for thrips number were less consistent across evaluation dates. The most appropriate assessment times for thrips number would be between 50 to 70 DAP. It would be difficult to identify thrips resistant lines by using thrips number as selection criterion. Differences among cultivars for percentage of damaged plants were observed at 30, 0, 0 and 60 DAP, but not at 70 DAP. Appropriate assessment times would be at 30 to 50 DAP. Differences among cultivars for percentage of damaged leaves and thrips damage rating were quite similar and observed at 30 to 70 DAP. Appropriate assessment times would be at later evaluation dates (50 to 70 DAP). Plant damage parameters are more useful than thrips number in identifying differences among peanut cultivars. These parameters are more consistent across evaluation dates and years and should be promising for use as selection criteria for thrips resistance in peanut. Among tested cultivars, IC 10 showed the lowest thrips number and plant damage.
  K. Niyomsil , S. Jogloy , M. Keerati-kasikorn , C. Akkasaeng , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  As disease vectors and damaging pests, several thrips species are important for peanut production. Development of resistant cultivars is economical and sustainable mean to combat the problem. To achieve this goal, a better understanding of genetic control of thrips resistance is of paramount importance to the success of breeding programs. The objective of this study was to estimate relative importance of genetic parameters for total thrips number, number of adult thrips, number of larval thrips and leaf damage by thrips feeding, which might be indicative of thrips resistance in the three crosses of peanut, using generation means analysis. The experiment was conducted in a farmer’s field after rice harvest in Kalasin province in the Northeast of Thailand during dry season in 2002. Seven generations of three crosses were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with six replications under natural infestation of thrips population. Data of 50 days after planting (DAP) were reported for thrips number and data of 60, 70 and 80 DAP were reported for leaf damage. Dominance gene effect was significant in the cross ICGV 86388 x IC 10 for number of adult thrips and number of total thrips and in the cross ICGV 86388 x Khon Kaen 60-1 all genetic parameters estimated were not significant expect for dominance by dominance of adult thrip number. Additive gene effect was found in the cross IC 10 x Khon Kaen 60-1 for total thrips number. Additive x dominance epistatic gene effect was also found in the cross IC 10 x Khon Kaen 60-1 for total thrips number and larval thrips number, while dominance x dominance was expressed for adult thrips number. Additive genetic parameter for thrips damage was not significant for three sampling dates. Dominance and epistatic gene effects were significant in the cross IC 10 x Khon Kaen 60-1. Improvement of thrips resistance may be possible in the cross IC 10 x Khon Kaen 60-1 because of significant additive gene effect.
  P. Songsri , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala , N. Vorasoot , C. Akkasaeng , A. Patanothai and C.C. Holbrook
  The aims of this study were to evaluate genetic variations in yield and reproductive developmental characters among peanut genotypes in response to drought and relate these responses to pod yield under different soil moisture. Eleven peanut genotypes were tested under three soil moisture levels [field capacity (FC), 2/3 available soil water (AW) and 1/3AW] in field experiments. Data were recorded for number of flowers, pegs (RSs), immature pods and mature pods per plant, seed per pod, 100-seed weight and pod yield at harvest. A drought tolerance index (DTI) for pod yield was calculated as the ratio of pod yield under stress treatment to that under well-watered conditions. The differences among water regimes were significant for pod yield, number of RSs, immature pods and mature pods per plant, seed per pod and 100 seed weight and differences among genotypes were significant for all traits. Drought reduced pod yield, number of RSs, pods and mature pods per plant. Early peak of flowering is important for the formation of mature pods under drought conditions. Two different strategies were used in maintaining high pod yield under drought. High yield potential was important for ICGV 98348 and ICGV 98353, whereas low pod yield reduction was important for ICGV 98305, ICGV 98303 and ICGV 98300. Tifton 8 showed the lowest pod yield and poor seed filling. High RSs and well-filled mature pods were the most important traits contributing to high pod yield in drought resistant genotypes.
  A. Arunyanark , S. Jogloy , N. Vorasoot , C. Akkasaeng , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  The objectives of this study were to examine the stability of SPAD (soil plant analysis development) chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR) and chlorophyll density, surrogate trait of drought tolerance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and their relationships in different leaf positions at different times under different drought stress conditions. Chlorophyll density and SCMR varied depending on water regimes, times of sampling and genotypes, but water regime x genotype interactions were not significant for chlorophyll density and SCMR. The correlation coefficients between chlorophyll density and SCMR were positive and significant across irrigation treatments (r = 0.76**, 0.94** and 0.96**) and each water regime, plant age and leaf position (r = 0.31 to 0.99**). Interestingly, chlorophyll density and SCMR at different water regimes were also correlated significantly, indicating the stability of their relationship in different water regime conditions. The result suggest that evaluation of chlorophyll density by SCMR can be carried out at any water regime conditions in the second or third-fully expanded leaves after 40 days of crop growth. This confers a large flexibility to application of SCMR in breeding program for drought tolerance.
  M. Painawadee , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala , C. Akkasaeng and A. Patanothai
  The aim of this study was to investigate whether some root characters and physiological characters are related to drought resistance in some elite germplasm lines earlier identified as drought resistant based on pod yield. Four peanut genotypes were tested in a pot experiment under two soil moisture levels [Field Capacity (FC) and 1/3 available water (1/3 AW)]. A 2x4 factorial experiment was laid out in RCBD with six replications. Data were recorded for Relative Water Content (RWC), Specific Leaf Area (SLA), SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Reading (SCMR), root and biomass at 70 days after planting. Root characters, biomass production, pod yield and Harvest Index (HI) were recorded at harvest and Drought Tolerance Index (DTI) for these traits were also calculated. Differences between water treatments were also significant for RWC, SLA, Root Dry Weight (RDW) and biomass but not significant for SCMR, harvest index and pod yield. Drought stress reduced RWC, SLA, RDW and biomass but had no significant effect on SCMR, harvest index and pod yield. Significant differences among peanut genotypes were found for SLA at both water treatments. ICGV 98353 had the lowest SLA at both water treatments. Peanut genotypes were significantly different for RDW and RWC at 1/3 AW only. KK 4 had the highest RDW. ICGV 98324 performed best for RWC and it also had the highest DTI for RWC. ICGV 98324 also had the highest SCMR, which was significantly different among peanut genotypes at FC.
  D. Puangbut , S. Jogloy , N. Vorasoot , C. Akkasaeng , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  The objectives of the present study were to investigate the variability in yield responses of peanut genotypes subjected to Early Season Drought (ESD) and to evaluate characters associated with yield. The field experiment was conducted in the rainy and dry seasons. Eleven genotypes of peanut and two water regimes (field capacity and 1/3 available soil water) were laid out in split plot design with four replications. Where, water regimes were assigned in main plots and 11 peanut genotypes were laid out in subplots. Imposition of ESD following re-watering resulted in an increase of pod yield compared to the irrigated treatment. Significant genotypic differences in yield response in relation to ESD were observed in this study and this could be useful in selecting desired genotypes in peanut breeding program. The highest pod yields were found in ICGV 98303 and Tainan 9 in the rainy season, whereas, in the dry season, ICGV 98303 was still highest for pod yield followed by ICGV 98300. After re-watering, SPAD chlorophyll meter reading, leaf area index and biomass productions were increased. Thus, increase in yield was associated with high biomass production after recovery combined with great green leaf area and concentration of leaf chlorophyll.
  M. Painawadee , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala , C. Akkasaeng and A. Patanothai
  Several physio-morphological traits are related to pod yield of peanut. Improvement of these traits should lead to yield increase under drought conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate (1) heritability of drought resistance traits, yield and yield components and (2) relationships among these traits. A cross of two parents (ICGV 98324 and KK 4) differing in physio-morphological traits was used in this study. Pot experiments of F2 and F3 populations were set up in the open field with rainout shelters. One hundred and twenty eight entries were subjected to water stress during 28 to 70 days after sowing and evaluation of the studied characters was conducted at appropriate time. Data were recorded for Root Dry Weight (RDW), Root Length (RL), Root Surface (RS), Root Volume (RV), Specific Leaf Area (SLA), SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Reading (SCMR), biomass, pod yield, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, 100-seed weight and Harvest Index (HI). Heritability estimates in broad sense for root characters and drought resistance traits were low to intermediate, ranging from 0.27 to 0.59. Similarly, low to intermediate heritability estimates in broad sense were found for pod yield and yield components, ranging from 0.20 to 0.57. Heritability estimates in narrow sense were much lower than in broad sense. The correlation coefficients among root characters were inter-related positively, whereas negative correlation coefficients were observed among physiological characters. Root characters were closely related to biomass production but they were not related to yield and yield components except for pod number per plant.
  P. Songsri , N. Vorasoot , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala , C. Akkasaeng , A. Patanothai and C.C. Holbrook
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the responses to difference in available soil water levels for yield and reproductive characters of peanut genotypes and relate these responses to pod yield under drought conditions. Eleven peanut genotypes were tested under three soil moisture levels (Field Capacity (FC), 2/3 available soil water (AW) and 1/3AW). Data were recorded for total number of flowers, pegs (reproductive sinks; RSs), immature pods and mature pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and pod yield at harvest. Drought at mild and severe levels significantly reduced Harvest Index (HI), yield components and reproductive developmental characters and the reductions were most substantial for pod yield with increasing moisture stress. High pod yield under drought conditions in ICGV 98300 was caused by high potential yield and low yield reduction, whereas high pod yield in ICGV 98324 was due to low pod yield reduction. High HI and numbers of mature pods are advantageous and necessary for high yield under drought conditions. High conversion of RSs to total pods and conversion of flowers to mature pods were the most important factors contributing to high pod yield under mild drought (2/3 AW) and severe drought (1/3 AW), respectively. Tifton 8 showed the lowest pod yield and poor seed filling under well-watered and droughts conditions.
  T. Changdee , A. Polthanee , C. Akkasaeng and S. Morita
  The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different waterlogging regimes on growth, yield and roots development in three fiber crops. Three fiber crops kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) were subjected to waterlogging for 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 days, as well as a well-drained subject (control). The waterlogging regimes had a significant effect on plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, biomass production, root growth and aerenchyma tissue formation. The crops subjected to waterlogging for longer periods were more affected in their growth characteristics: H. cannabinus had a higher plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, biomass production and root growth less than H. sabdariffa and C. olitorius. Aerenchyma tissue developed in adventitious roots of three fiber crops species. The fiber crops subjected to waterlogging regimes decreased fiber yield by 11.9-51.2% compared to the control. H. cannabinus produced the highest fiber yield after 45 days of waterlogging duration. This results is due to the higher growth and roots development of H. cannabinus than the other two fiber crops.
  A. Promkhambut , A. Younger , A. Polthanee and C. Akkasaeng
  The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of waterlogging on morphological and physiological traits of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cultivars. Four sorghum cultivars, cv. Wray, Keller, Bailey (sweet cultivar) and cv. SP1 (forage cultivar) at five expanded leaf stage were subjected to 20 days of waterlogging and drained pots were kept as the control. Twenty days of waterlogging did not cause a significant difference in shoot and root biomass among cultivars. Flooding reduced leaf area (69%), plant height (30%) and youngest leaf expansion rate of all cultivars but severely reduced in SP1 (35-80%). Flooding promoted leaf senescence of all cultivars and biomass allocation to shoot (increase in shoot/root) in Wray, Keller and Bailey, but increased biomass partitioning to root in SP1. The initiation of new nodal root was noted in SP1, whereas the ability to maintain root surface area by increase in longest root length and nodal root development near soil surface was found in Wray. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate were severely reduced under waterlogging conditions of sweet cultivars (65-78%), but enhanced over the control in forage cultivar (56%). The ability to conserve root surface area, allocate more biomass to shoot during waterlogging and develop root near soil surface may support new growth in Wray, whereas the ability to maintain leaf gas exchange parameters in SP1 was due to the active nodal root growth. Nevertheless, there was no relationship between photosynthetic rate and shoot growth of sorghum under anaerobic conditions.
  S. Boontang , P. Songsri , S. Jogloy , C. Akkasaeng , N. Vorasoot , N. Tantisuwichwong and A. Patanothai
  Objective of this study was to investigate whether physiological traits related to drought tolerance can correctly identify the peanut genotypes with high yield under water-limited conditions. Seven released cultivars and two drought tolerant lines were arranged in a split plot design with four replications for two years. The two water regimes (field capacity; FC and 2/3 available water; 2/3 AW.) were assigned in main plots and peanut genotypes were assigned in subplots. The data were recorded for SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Reading (SCMR), Specific Leaf Weight (SLW), biomass, pod yield, harvest index (HI), number of mature pods, shelling percentage, 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. SLW and SCMR could effectively identify peanut cultivars with higher pod yield under water-limited conditions. KK 60-3, KKU 72-1 and KKU 60 were identified as drought tolerant because they had SCMR and SLW, which were similar to those of ICGV 98324 and ICGV 98308. KK 60-3 had high biomass under water limited conditions because of high potential but it had poor pod yield, whereas KKU 60 had the highest pod yield and HI. KKU 60 also had the highest pod yield under well-watered conditions. The results indicated that some released cultivars had degree of drought tolerance similar to or better than that of the drought tolerant lines. The improvement of peanut cultivars for drought tolerance can be site-specific.
  S. Boontang , T. Girdthai , S. Jogloy , C. Akkasaeng , N. Vorasoot , A. Patanothai and N. Tantisuwichwong
  The use of the surrogate traits with simple inheritance as selection criteria for drought tolerance should speed up the selection programs. The objectives of this study were to investigate the responses of released cultivars of peanut to end of season drought for traits related to drought tolerance and agronomics traits and to identify the released cultivars with tolerance to end of season drought. Ten peanut genotypes and two water regimes (field capacity; FC and 1/3 available water; 1/3 AW) were laid out in a split plot design with four replications for two years. The data were recorded for SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR), Specific leaf weight (SLW), biomass, pod yield, harvest index (HI), number of mature pods, 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. Drought increased SCMR and SLW and reduced biomass production, pod yield and seed size, whereas harvest index and number of pods per plants were not significantly affected. Maintaining high pod yield and number of pods per plant depended solely on high potential under well-watered conditions, whereas maintaining high biomass production and seed size and harvest index was dependent on both high potential and low reduction. SCMR and SLW were well associated and they had high correlations with biomass and pod yield. SCMR seemed to be more stable than SLW and it is recommended to be used as a surrogate trait for drought tolerance in peanut. The released cultivar KKU 60 was identified as drought tolerant by SCMR and SLW and by pod yield.
  C. Jogloy , P. Jaisil , C. Akkasaeng , T. Kesmala and S. Jogloy
  The rapid accumulation and conversion of the dry matter into harvestable yield under limited crop duration are preferable for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown in various cropping systems where intensified cropping systems are generally practiced. In these cropping systems, peanut genotypes with acceptable yield and shorter crop duration are required. The objectives of this study were to estimate the broad sense heritability for Crop Growth Rate (CGR), Pod Growth Rate (PGR), Partitioning Efficiency (PC) and reproductive duration in an advanced generation of segregating population of large-seeded type peanut and to investigate the relationship among these characters. Two-hundred breeding lines in the F6 generation of 10 peanut crosses (twenties for each cross) were assigned in a randomized complete block design with two replications. CGR, PGR, PC and RD were recorded at harvest. Heritability estimates for CGR (0.00-0.60) were lower than those for PGR (0.04-0.68), PC (0.00-0.82) and RD (0.17-0.90). Correlation coefficients among CGR, PGR and PC were positive and significant, whereas they were negatively and significantly correlated with RD. The results suggested that improvement of CGR, PGR, PC would be possible among studied materials and would result in lower reproductive duration and early maturity.
 
 
 
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