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Articles by C. Akem
Total Records ( 4 ) for C. Akem
  C. Akem and S. Kabbabeh
  In an annual monitoring visit of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) fields for diseases occurring on promising chickpea breeding lines in Syria, Sclerotinia stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was found in more than 30 percent of the fields in which the trials were planted. The disease incidence ranged from 5 to 100 percent and none of the lines in the trials showed high resistance to the disease. A program was initiated to start screening chickpea lines to Sclerotinia stem rot with known resistance to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, to identify lines with combined resistance. A detached shoot technique was used to determine the preliminary reaction of chickpea genotypes to infection by S. sclerotiorum. Results using this technique under controlled conditions in the growth chamber, showed that out of 15 chickpea genotypes evaluated, 5 exhibited some resistance to Sclerotinia stem rot. This was shown by delayed initial infection, restricted lesion development and no sclerotial production. These results were confirmed using potted plants in the plastic house. The technique is simple, less labor-intensive and requires a very short period of time to obtain results that can be confirmed under field seasonal or other conditions.
  C. Akem , S. Kabbabeh and S. Ahmed
  The influence of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) planting date on seasonal epidemics of Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labrousse and on grain yield was evaluated during the 1997 and 1998 cropping seasons. Two chickpea cultivar (Ghab 1 and Ghab 3) and 2 breeding lines (FLIP 90-96 and F 88-85) were used in the field trials at 3 different locations representing the different agro ecological zones in which winter chickpea is grown in Syria and in most of the Mediterranean countries. Four field plantings were made at 14-day intervals from mid November to mid March. All plots were initially inoculated with infected debris and disease development followed natural prevailing environmental conditions. Ascochyta blight disease severity ratings were taken at early flowering and again at podding and grain yield for each plot was measured at harvest. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in disease severity between the first and third planting in all the entries at all the locations and for both years. The difference in disease severity resulted in significant yield differences but not in differences in seed quality. Under Syrian and Mediterranean conditions, an increase in Ascochyta blight severity can be expected with early planting of chickpea before January and this can result in a corresponding big loss in crop yield. The loss in yield from disease through early plantings however, is more than compensated for, by the reduction in yield due to other environmental parameters in late spring planting, if moderate resistant cultivars are planted.
  C. Akem , S. Kabbabeh and S. Ahmed
  Field trials were conducted at 3 Mediterranean environments in Syria, during the cropping seasons of 1997 and 1998, to evaluate the control of chickpea Ascochyta blight with a single fungicide spray on 4 chickpea genotypes. Ascochyta blight disease epidemics were produced at the different locations and plots with the spread of Ascochyta-infected chickpea debris soon after crop germination. The plots were sprayed with a single application of the fungicide, Chlorothalonil at 4 different growth stages, starting from seedling stage to podding growth stage, to determine the effect of the fungicide application timing on Ascochyta blight severity, chickpea grain yield and grain quality. Generally, single applications made before flowering significantly (p<0.05) reduced disease severity in the 2 susceptible genotypes, Ghab1 and Ghab 3. Plot yields of these genotypes were also significantly greater than the untreated controls when applications were made at seedling or vegetative growth stages. There was no significant difference in disease severity and grain yield, between the untreated control and time of application on the resistant genotypes, F 90-96 and F 85-88. The timing of application had a significant effect on pod infection but generally no effect on seed weight. There were no significant effects of seed infection by Ascochyta rabiei. The results suggest that single fungicide sprays made before flowering are most effective in Ascochyta blight control under Mediterranean conditions and can also result in higher grain yields than applications made at the reproductive phase of the crop.
  C. Akem , M. Bellar and B. Bayaa
  Isolates of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were collected from infected lentil plants from 2 agro-ecological zones of Syria and used to study their comparative growth on culture media and pathogenicity on different lentil genotypes. The growth studies were carried out on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) growth media under laboratory conditions. Mycelial radial growth and sclerotial production were the parameters used to compare the isolates. Pathogenicity studies were carried out with selected isolates on 10 lentil genotypes, infected as detached shoots and as whole potted-plants in the plastic house. The isolates showed considerable variation in cultural characteristics through mycelial growth, mycelial pigmentation and sclerotial production in the media plates. There were significant differences in the growth and sclerotial production of most of the isolates, but no apparent correlation between mycelial growth and sclerotial production among the isolates. Genotype by isolate interactions was significant for the isolates tested for pathogenicity. These interactions, however, appeared to be caused by differences in virulence of the isolates and did not suggest the occurrence of distinct pathogenic races of the pathogen isolates.
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