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Articles by C. V. Rao
Total Records ( 2 ) for C. V. Rao
  N. B Janakiram , A Mohammed , Y Zhang , C. I Choi , C Woodward , P Collin , V. E Steele and C. V. Rao

Sea cucumber extracts have been widely used to treat individuals with inflammatory conditions in East Asia. The present study has been designed to test potential colon cancer–preventive properties of Frondanol A5, a glycolipid extract from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, using in vivo and in vitro models of colon cancer. Chemopreventive efficacy of Frondanol A5 was evaluated on azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis using colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as efficacy marker. At 7 weeks of age, groups of rats (12 per group) were fed the AIN-76A diet, and ACFs were induced by azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight). Three days after azoxymethane treatment, rats were fed with the diets containing 0, 150, and 450 ppm of Frondanol A5 and continued on the diets for 8 weeks, at which time ACFs were evaluated. Expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and p21WAF1/CIP1 were determined in ACFs. Further, Frondanol A5 (10-120 µg/mL) was studied for its growth-inhibitory and apoptotic effects in the HCT-116 cell line. Dietary administration of 150 and 450 ppm of Frondanol A5 significantly suppressed azoxymethane-induced total colonic ACF formation, approximately 34% to 55% (P < 0.01 to P < 0.0001), and multicrypt aberrant foci (48-68.5%, P < 0.0001) in a dose-dependent manner. ACFs in rats treated with Frondanol A5 showed significant upregulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 and downregulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen compared with control group. Frondanol A5 showed growth inhibition at S and G2-M phase with a decrease in Cdc25c and an increase in p21WAF1/CIP with significant apoptosis associated with H2AX phosphorylation and caspase-2 cleavage in HCT116 cells. Overall, Frondanol A5 exhibits potential chemopreventive properties for colon carcinogenesis, which suggests further development of this sea cucumber extract. Cancer Prev Res; 3(1); 82–91

  A Mohammed , N. B Janakiram , Q Li , V Madka , M Ely , S Lightfoot , H Crawford , V. E Steele and C. V. Rao

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common pancreatic malignancy with a dismal prognosis. Developing novel strategies to prevent or delay pancreatic cancer is currently of intense interest. The chemopreventive efficacy of gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, was evaluated against the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanIN) to PDAC in conditional LSL-KrasG12D/+ transgenic mice. LSL-KrasG12D/+ and p48Cre/+ mice were bred, and offspring of activated KrasG12D/+ were generated. Six-week-old male KrasG12D/+ (20 per group) and C57BL/6 wild-type (12 per group) mice were fed (AIN-76A) diets containing 0, 100, and 200 ppm of gefitinib for 35 weeks. At termination, pancreases were evaluated histopathologically for PanINs and PDAC, and various biomarkers were measured by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, and/or reverse transcription-PCR. Dietary gefitinib at 100 and 200 ppm significantly suppressed PDAC incidence by 77% and 100%, respectively (P < 0.0001) when compared with control diet. Importantly, a significant inhibition of carcinoma and a dose-dependent suppression of PanINs [PanIN-1, 37-62% (P < 0.002); PanIN-2, 38-41 (P < 0.001); and PanIN-3, 7-34% (P < 0.0141)] were observed in mice treated with gefitinib. Furthermore, mice treated with 100 and 200 ppm of gefitinib exhibited 67.6% to 77.3% of the pancreas to be free from ductal lesions. Also, gefitinib reduced EGFR, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1, C2GNT, RhoA, β-catenin, p38, phospho-extracellular signal–regulated kinase, caveolin-1, and mucin and increased cyclin B1 in the pancreatic lesions/PDAC. In summary, these results show that gefitinib can prevent the progression of pancreatic cancer precursor lesions to PDAC in a preclinical model. The present study highlights the promise of chemoprevention and the potential usefulness of EGFR inhibitors in individuals at high risk for pancreatic cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 3(11); 1417–26. ©2010 AACR.

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