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Articles by C. V Rao
Total Records ( 2 ) for C. V Rao
  V. E Steele , C. V Rao , Y Zhang , J Patlolla , D Boring , L Kopelovich , M. M Juliana , C. J Grubbs and R. A. Lubet

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) have been highly effective in preventing colon, urinary bladder, and skin cancer preclinically, and also in clinical trials of colon adenoma formation. However, certain NSAIDs cause gastrointestinal ulceration and may increase cardiovascular events. Naproxen seems to cause the lowest cardiovascular events of the common NSAIDs other than aspirin. Nitric oxide (NO)-naproxen was tested based on the finding that adding a NO group to NSAIDs may help alleviate GI toxicity. In the azoxymethane-induced rat colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) model, naproxen administered at 200 and 400 ppm in the diet reduced mean ACFs in the colon by about 45% to 60%, respectively. NO-naproxen was likewise administered in the diet at roughly equimolar doses (300 and 600 ppm) and reduced total ACF by 20% to 40%, respectively. In the hydroxybutyl (butyl) nitrosamine rat urinary bladder cancer model, NO-naproxen was given at 183 or 550 ppm in the diet, and naproxen at 128 ppm. The NO-naproxen groups had 77% and 73% decreases, respectively, in the development of large urinary bladder tumors, whereas the 128 ppm naproxen group also showed a strong decrease (69%). If treatments were started 3 months after hydroxybutyl (butyl) nitrosamine, NO-naproxen (550 ppm) and naproxen (400 ppm) were also highly effective (86-94% decreases). In the methylnitrosourea-induced mammary cancer model in rats, NO-naproxen and naproxen showed nonsignificant inhibitions (12% and 24%) at 550 and 400 ppm, respectively. These data show that both naproxen and NO-naproxen are effective agents against urinary bladder and colon, but not mammary, carcinogenesis.

  C. V Rao , H. Y Yamada , Y Yao and W. Dai

Aneuploidy is defined as numerical abnormalities of chromosomes and is frequently (>90%) present in solid tumors. In general, tumor cells become increasingly aneuploid with tumor progression. It has been proposed that enhanced genomic instability at least contributes significantly to, if not requires, tumor progression. Two major modes for genomic instability are microsatellite instability (MIN) and chromosome instability (CIN). MIN is associated with DNA-level defects (e.g. mismatch repair defects), and CIN is associated with mitotic errors such as chromosome mis-segregation. The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures that cells with defective mitotic spindles or defective interaction between the spindles and kinetochores do not initiate chromosomal segregation during mitosis. Thus, the SAC functions to protect the cell from chromosome mis-segregation and anueploidy during cell division. A loss of the SAC function results in gross aneuploidy, a condition from which cells with an advantage for proliferation will be selected. During the past several years, a flurry of genetic studies in mice and humans strongly support the notion that an impaired SAC causes enhanced genomic instabilities and tumor development. This review article summarizes the roles of key spindle checkpoint proteins {i.e. Mad1/Mad1L1, Mad2/Mad2L1, BubR1/Bub1B, Bub3/Bub3 [conventional protein name (yeast or human)/mouse protein name]} and the modulators (i.e. Chfr/Chfr, Rae1/Rae1, Nup98/Nup98, Cenp-E/CenpE, Apc/Apc) in genomic stability and suppression of tumor development, with a focus on information from genetically engineered mouse model systems. Further elucidation of molecular mechanisms of the SAC signaling has the potential for identifying new targets for rational anticancer drug design.

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