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Articles by C. S Lee
Total Records ( 7 ) for C. S Lee
  R Nandhagopal , L Kuramoto , M Schulzer , E Mak , J Cragg , C. S Lee , J McKenzie , S McCormick , A Samii , A Troiano , T. J Ruth , V Sossi , R de la Fuente Fernandez , D. B Calne and A. J. Stoessl

Parkinson's disease is a heterogeneous disorder with multiple factors contributing to disease initiation and progression. Using serial, multi-tracer positron emission tomography imaging, we studied a cohort of 78 subjects with sporadic Parkinson's disease to understand the disease course better. Subjects were scanned with radiotracers of presynaptic dopaminergic integrity at baseline and again after 4 and 8 years of follow-up. Non-linear multivariate regression analyses, using random effects, of the form BPND(t) or Kocc(t) = a*e(–bt–dA) + c, where BPND = tracer binding potential (nondispaceable), KOCC = tracer uptake constant a, b, c and d are regression parameters, t is the symptom duration and A is the age at onset, were utilized to model the longitudinal progression of radiotracer binding/uptake. We found that the initial tracer binding/uptake was significantly different in anterior versus posterior striatal subregions, indicating that the degree of denervation at disease onset was different between regions. However, the relative rate of decline in tracer binding/uptake was similar between the striatal subregions. While an antero-posterior gradient of severity was maintained for dopamine synthesis, storage and reuptake, the asymmetry between the more and less affected striatum became less prominent over the disease course. Our study suggests that the mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease initiation and progression are probably different. Whereas factors responsible for disease initiation affect striatal subregions differently, those factors contributing to disease progression affect all striatal subregions to a similar degree and may therefore reflect non-specific mechanisms such as oxidative stress, inflammation or excitotoxicity.

  M. S Kim , C. S Lee , J Hur , H. J Cho , S. I Jun , T. Y Kim , S. W Lee , J. W Suh , K. W Park , H. Y Lee , H. J Kang , D. S Lee , G. Y Koh , H Nakagami , R Morishita , Y. B Park and H. S. Kim

Background— The low engraftment rate of stem/progenitor cells infused via the intracoronary route to the ischemic myocardium is one of the most important factors limiting the efficacy of cell therapy. We investigated the concept of priming peripheral blood stem cells enriched by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilization and apheresis (mobPBSCs) with angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), to enhance the engraftment into the ischemic tissue and neovasculogenic potential.

Methods and Results— The expression of Tie2, the Ang1 receptor, was significantly higher in mobPBSCs than naïve peripheral blood mononuclear cells (19.2±3.0% versus 1.2±0.8% versus 1.2±0.2%; P<0.001 for mobPBSCs from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment for 3 days versus peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AMI patients versus peripheral blood mononuclear cells from stable angina patients). After 4 hours of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP)-Ang1 stimulation, mobPBSCs committed to the endothelial lineage with the induction of CD31 and VE-cadherin expression, mediated by Tie2/Ets-1 pathway. Priming of mobPBSCs with COMP-Ang1 induced the expression of 4β1 and 5β1 integrins, which are also Ets-1 downstream molecules, leading to enhanced adhesion to endothelial cells or fibronectin. In a rabbit ear ischemia/reperfusion model, priming of mobPBSCs with COMP-Ang1 improved first-pass engraftment to the distal vascular bed after intraarterial delivery. In a murine ischemic hind-limb model, intravascular delivery of primed mobPBSCs enhanced both engraftment and neovascularization.

Conclusions— The short-term priming with COMP-Ang1 may be a feasible and promising option to activate mobPBSCs by enhancing differentiation and adhesiveness and to improve the efficacy of cell therapy for ischemic diseases.

  B Riegel , C. S Lee and J. Sochalski

Background— Comparing disease management programs and their effects is difficult because of wide variability in program intensity and complexity. The purpose of this effort was to develop an instrument that can be used to describe the intensity and complexity of heart failure (HF) disease management programs.

Methods and Results— Specific composition criteria were taken from the American Heart Association (AHA) taxonomy of disease management and hierarchically scored to allow users to describe the intensity and complexity of the domains and subdomains of HF disease management programs. The HF Disease Management Scoring Instrument (HF-DMSI) incorporates 6 of the 8 domains from the taxonomy: recipient, intervention content, delivery personnel, method of communication, intensity/complexity, and environment. The 3 intervention content subdomains (education/counseling, medication management, and peer support) are described separately. In this first test of the HF-DMSI, overall intensity (measured as duration) and complexity were rated using an ordinal scoring system. Possible scores reflect a clinical rationale and differ by category, with zero given only if the element could potentially be missing (eg, surveillance by remote monitoring). Content validity was evident as the instrument matches the existing AHA taxonomy. After revision and refinement, 2 authors obtained an inter-rater reliability intraclass correlation coefficient score of 0.918 (confidence interval, 0.880 to 0.944, P<0.001) in their rating of 12 studies. The areas with most variability among programs were delivery personnel and method of communication.

Conclusions— The HF-DMSI is useful for describing the intensity and complexity of HF disease management programs.

  C. S Lee , R. B Hayes , E. L McQuaid and B. Borrelli

Introduction. Only one previous study on minority retention in smoking cessation treatment has been conducted (Nevid JS, Javier RA, Moulton JL III. Factors predicting participant attrition in a community-based, culturally specific smoking cessation program for Hispanic smokers. Health Psychol 1996; 15: 226–29). We investigated predictors of intervention completion and assessment completion among Latino smokers (n = 131) with asthmatic children participating in a home-based asthma education study that included smoking cessation counseling. Methods. We examined a variety of pretreatment demographic and psychosocial predictors of intervention completion (completing all three home visits versus <3), assessment completion (attendance/not) and total study participation (completing all six contacts versus <6). Results. Lower levels of depressed mood (OR = 0.912, 95% CI: 0.857–0.971, P < 0.01) and fewer ‘pros’ of smoking (OR = 0.882, 95% CI: 0.809–0.961, P < 0.01) predicted intervention completion. Predictors of assessment completion included having more friends who smoke (OR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.23–3.56, P < 0.01), fewer pros of smoking (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.81–0.95, P < 0.01) and a strong belief that quitting smoking would benefit the child's asthma (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.04–2.74, P < 0.05). Unemployed participants were more likely to complete all six study contacts than those who were working (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14–0.99, P < 0.05). Discussion. Findings suggest the need to tailor retention strategies during active treatment and follow-up assessments to target those who at risk of dropping out.

  D. M.T Yu , K Ajami , M. G Gall , J Park , C. S Lee , K. A Evans , E. A McLaughlin , M. R Pitman , C. A Abbott , G. W McCaughan and M. D. Gorrell

The dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPIV) enzyme family contains both potential and proven therapeutic targets. Recent reports indicate the presence of DP8 and DP9 in peripheral blood lymphocytes, testis, lung, and brain. For a more comprehensive understanding of DP8 and DP9 tissue and cellular expression, mRNA and enzyme activity were examined. Many organs from C57BL/6 wild-type and DPIV gene-knockout mice were examined; DP8/9 enzyme activity was detected in the immune system, brain, testis, muscle, and epithelia. In situ hybridization localized DP8 and DP9 mRNA to lymphocytes and epithelial cells in liver, gastrointestinal tract, lymph node, spleen, and lung. DP8 and DP9 mRNA was detected in baboon and mouse testis, and DP9 expression was elevated in human testicular cancers. DP8 and DP9 mRNA were ubiquitous in day 17 mouse embryo, with greatest expression in epithelium (skin and gastrointestinal tract) and brain. Thus, DP8 and DP9 are widely expressed enzymes. Their expression in lymphocytes and epithelia indicates potential for roles in the digestive and immune systems. This manuscript contains online supplemental material at Please visit this article online to view these materials. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:1025–1040, 2009)

  K. H Chang , W Lee , D. M Choo , C. S Lee and Y. Kim

In this research, using direct measurements and Monte Carlo calculations, the potential dose reduction achieved by bismuth shielding in computed tomography was evaluated. The patient dose was measured using an ionisation chamber in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom that had five measurement points at the centre and periphery. Simulations were performed using the MCNPX code. For both the bare and the bismuth-shielded phantom, the differences of dose values between experiment and simulation were within 9 %. The dose reductions due to the bismuth shielding were 1.2–55 % depending on the measurement points, X-ray tube voltage and the type of shielding. The amount of dose reduction was significant for the positions covered by the bismuth shielding (34 – 46 % for head and 41 – 55 % for body phantom on average) and negligible for other peripheral positions. The artefact on the reconstructed images were minimal when the distance between the shielding and the organs was >1 cm, and hence the shielding should be selectively located to protect critical organs such as the eye lens, thyroid and breast. The simulation results using the PMMA phantom was compared with those using a realistically voxelised phantom (KTMAN-2). For eye and breast, the simulation results using the PMMA and KTMAN-2 phantoms were similar with each other, while for thyroid the simulation results were different due to the discrepancy of locations and the sizes of the phantoms. The dose reductions achieved by bismuth and lead shielding were compared with each other and the results showed that the difference of the dose reductions achieved by the two materials was less than 2–3 %.

  C. S Lee , C. K Choi , E. Y Shin , M. A Schwartz and E. G. Kim

The activity of Rho GTPases in migrating cells is regulated by binding of myosin II to GEFs.

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