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Articles by C. R Parikh
Total Records ( 5 ) for C. R Parikh
  C. R Parikh , J. C Lu , S. G Coca and P. Devarajan

The diagnosis and prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) by current clinical means is inadequate. Biomarkers of kidney injury that are easily measured and unaffected by physiological variables could revolutionize the management of AKI. Our objective was to systematically review the diagnostic and prognostic utility of urine and serum biomarkers of AKI in humans. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed and EMBASE databases (January 2000–August 2009) for biomarker studies that could be classified into the following categories: (a) confirmation of the diagnosis of established AKI, (b) early prediction of AKI, and (c) prognostication of AKI. We identified 54 manuscripts published since 2000 that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Urinary interleukin-18 (IL-18), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) are potentially useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of established AKI. Urinary NGAL, IL-18, and liver-type fatty acid binding protein, and serum NGAL and cystatin C represent the most promising biomarkers for early prediction of AKI. Urinary cystatin C, 1-microglobulin, NAG and retinol-binding protein may be useful to predict severity and outcomes of AKI. In conclusion, we identified several studies of promising biomarkers for the diagnosis, prediction and prognostication of AKI. However, we note several limitations, including small sample sizes, inadequate gold standard, exclusion of patients with chronic kidney disease, incomplete statistical analyses, utilization of research-based assays and a paucity of studies examining prediction for clinical outcomes. Future studies will need to address these limitations in order for further progress to be made.

  A Licurse , M. C Kim , J Dziura , H. P Forman , R. N Formica , D. V Makarov , C. R Parikh and C. P. Gross

Background  In adult inpatients with acute kidney injury (AKI), clinicians routinely order a renal ultrasonography (RUS) study. It is unclear how often this test provides clinically useful information.

Methods  Cross-sectional study, including derivation and validation samples, of 997 US adults admitted to Yale–New Haven Hospital from January 2005 to May 2009, who were diagnosed as having AKI and who underwent RUS to evaluate elevated creatinine level. Pregnant women, renal transplant recipients, and patients with recently diagnosed hydronephrosis (HN) were excluded. Demographic and clinical characteristics were abstracted from the medical records. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed to create risk strata for HN and HN requiring an intervention (HNRI); a separate sample was used for validation. The frequency of incidental findings on RUS was assessed for each stratum.

Results  In a derivation sample of 200 patients, 7 factors were found to be associated with HN: history of HN; recurrent urinary tract infections; diagnosis consistent with obstruction; nonblack race; and absence of the following: exposure to nephrotoxic medications, congestive heart failure, or prerenal AKI. Among 797 patients in the validation sample (mean age, 65.6 years), 10.6% had HN and 3.3% had HNRI. Of 223 patients in the low-risk group, 7 (3.1%) had HN and 1 (0.4%) had HNRI (223 patients needed to be screened to find 1 case of HNRI). In this group, there were 0 incidental findings on RUS unknown to the clinical team. In the higher-risk group, 15.7% had HN and 4.7% had HNRI.

Conclusion  In adult inpatients with AKI, specific factors can identify patients unlikely to have HN or HNRI on RUS.

  J. C. T Lu , S. G Coca , U. D Patel , L Cantley , C. R Parikh and for the Translational Research Investigating Biomarkers and Endpoints for Acute Kidney Injury (TRIBE

Background and Objectives: Identifying patients who may develop acute kidney injury (AKI) remains challenging, as clinical determinants explain only a portion of individual risk. Another factor that likely affects risk is intrinsic genetic variability. Therefore, a systematic review of studies was performed that related the development or prognosis of AKI to genetic variation.

Design, setting, participants, and measurements: MEDLINE, EMBASE, HuGEnet, SCOPUS, and Web of Science were searched for articles from 1950 to Dec 2007. Two independent researchers screened articles using predetermined criteria. Studies were assessed for methodological quality via an aggregate scoring system.

Results: The 16 included studies were of cohort or case-cohort design and investigated 35 polymorphisms in 21 genes in association with AKI. Fifteen gene-gene interactions were also investigated in four separate studies. Study populations were primarily premature infants or adults who were critically ill or postcardiac bypass patients. Among the studies, five different definitions of AKI were used. Only one polymorphism, APO E e2/e3/e4, had greater than one study showing a significant impact (P < 0.05) on AKI incidence. The mean quality score of 5.8/10 (range four to nine), heterogeneity in the studies, and the dearth of studies precluded additional meta-analysis of the results.

Conclusions: Current association studies are unable to provide definitive evidence linking genetic variation to AKI. Future success will require a narrow consensus definition of AKI, rigorous epidemiologic techniques, and a shift from a priori hypothesis-driven to genome-wide association studies.

  E. M Gibney , M. D Doshi , E. L Hartmann , C. R Parikh and A. X. Garg

Background and objectives: Ensuring follow-up of living kidney donors (LKDs) is essential to long-term preventive care. We sought information on health insurance status of US LKDs, with particular attention to age, gender, and ethnicity.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: The United Network for Organ Sharing/Organ Procurement Transplantation Network database was queried for associations among age at donation, race, gender, and health insurance status. We studied all US LKDs between July 2004 and September 2006.

Results: A total of 10,021 LKDs with known health insurance status were studied, 1765 (18%) of whom lacked health insurance at donation. There were 4852 donors without health insurance information. Younger kidney donors had higher rates of being uninsured (age 18 to 34: 26.2%; age 35 to 49: 15.2%; age 50 to 64: 11.2%; age >65: 3.8%; P < 0.0001), as did men (19.5 versus 16.3% for women; P < 0.0001), and ethnic minorities (white 13.4%, black 21%, Hispanic 35.6%, Asian 26.7%; P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: This study confirms that younger patients, ethnic minorities, and men are less likely to have health insurance when donating a kidney, which could negatively affect adherence to long-term follow-up.

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