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Articles by C. P Kovesdy
Total Records ( 6 ) for C. P Kovesdy
  R Shantouf , C. P Kovesdy , Y Kim , N Ahmadi , A Luna , C Luna , M Rambod , A. R Nissenson , M. J Budoff and K. Kalantar Zadeh
 

Background and objectives: Recent in vitro studies have shown a link between alkaline phosphatase and vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). High serum levels of alkaline phosphatase are associated with increased death risk in epidemiologic studies of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. We hypothesized that coronary artery calcification is independently associated with increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels in MHD patients.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We examined the association of coronary artery calcification score (CACS) and alkaline phosphatase in 137 randomly selected MHD patients for whom markers of malnutrition, inflammation, and bone and mineral disorders were also measured.

Results: Serum alkaline phosphatase was the only measure with significant and robust association with CACS (P < 0.003), whereas either other biochemical markers had no association with CACS or their association was eliminated after controlling for case-mix variables. Serum alkaline phosphatase >120 IU/L was a robust predictor of higher CACS and was particularly associated with the likelihood of CACS >400 (multivariate odds ratio 5.0 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 16.3; P = 0.007). Serum alkaline phosphatase of approximately 85 IU/L seemed to be associated with the lowest likelihood of severe coronary artery calcification, but in the lowest tertile of alkaline phosphatase, the CACS predictability was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: An association between serum alkaline phosphatase level and CACS exists in MHD patients. Given the high burden of vascular calcification in patients with CKD, examining potential therapeutic interventions to modulate the alkaline phosphatase pathway may be warranted.

  C. P Kovesdy , O Kuchmak , J. L Lu and K. Kalantar Zadeh
 

Background and objectives: Elevated serum calcium has been associated with increased mortality in dialysis patients, but it is unclear whether the same is true in non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) chronic kidney disease (CKD). Outcomes associated with low serum calcium are also not well-characterized.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We examined associations of baseline, time-varying, and time-averaged serum calcium with all-cause mortality in a historic prospective cohort of 1243 men with moderate and advanced NDD CKD by using Cox models.

Results: The association of serum calcium with mortality varied according to the applied statistical models. Higher baseline calcium and time-averaged calcium were associated with higher mortality (multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.31 (1.13, 1.53); P < 0.001 for a baseline calcium 1 mg/dl higher). However, in time-varying analyses, lower calcium levels were associated with increased mortality.

Conclusions: Higher serum calcium is associated with increased long-term mortality (as reflected by the baseline and time-averaged models), and lower serum calcium is associated with increased short-term mortality (as reflected by the time-varying models) in patients with NDD CKD. Clinical trials are warranted to determine whether maintaining normal serum calcium can improve outcomes in these patients.

  K Kalantar Zadeh , L Gutekunst , R Mehrotra , C. P Kovesdy , R Bross , C. S Shinaberger , N Noori , R Hirschberg , D Benner , A. R Nissenson and J. D. Kopple
 

In individuals with chronic kidney disease, high dietary phosphorus (P) burden may worsen hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy, promote vascular calcification and cardiovascular events, and increase mortality. In addition to the absolute amount of dietary P, its type (organic versus inorganic), source (animal versus plant derived), and ratio to dietary protein may be important. Organic P in such plant foods as seeds and legumes is less bioavailable because of limited gastrointestinal absorption of phytate-based P. Inorganic P is more readily absorbed by intestine, and its presence in processed, preserved, or enhanced foods or soft drinks that contain additives may be underreported and not distinguished from the less readily absorbed organic P in nutrient databases. Hence, P burden from food additives is disproportionately high relative to its dietary content as compared with natural sources that are derived from organic (animal and vegetable) food proteins. Observational and metabolic studies indicate nutritional and longevity benefits of higher protein intake in dialysis patients. This presents challenges to providing appropriate nutrition because protein and P intakes are closely correlated. During dietary counseling of patients with chronic kidney disease, the absolute dietary P content as well as the P-to-protein ratio in foods should be addressed. Foods with the least amount of inorganic P, low P-to-protein ratios, and adequate protein content that are consistent with acceptable palatability and enjoyment to the individual patient should be recommended along with appropriate prescription of P binders. Provision of in-center and monitored meals during hemodialysis treatment sessions in the dialysis clinic may facilitate the achievement of these goals.

  N Noori , K Kalantar Zadeh , C. P Kovesdy , R Bross , D Benner and J. D. Kopple
 

Background and objectives: Epidemiologic studies show an association between higher predialysis serum phosphorus and increased death risk in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. The hypothesis that higher dietary phosphorus intake and higher phosphorus content per gram of dietary protein intake are each associated with increased mortality in MHD patients was examined.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Food frequency questionnaires were used to conduct a cohort study to examine the survival predictability of dietary phosphorus and the ratio of phosphorus to protein intake. At the start of the cohort, Cox proportional hazard regression was used in 224 MHD patients, who were followed for up to 5 years (2001 to 2006).

Results: Both higher dietary phosphorus intake and a higher dietary phosphorus to protein ratio were associated with significantly increased death hazard ratios (HR) in the unadjusted models and after incremental adjustments for case-mix, diet, serum phosphorus, malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome, and inflammatory markers. The HR of the highest (compared with lowest) dietary phosphorus intake tertile in the fully adjusted model was 2.37. Across categories of dietary phosphorus to protein ratios of <12, 12 to <14, 14 to <16, and ≥16 mg/g, death HRs were 1.13, 1.00 (reference value), 1.80, and 1.99, respectively. Cubic spline models of the survival analyses showed similar incremental associations.

Conclusions: Higher dietary phosphorus intake and higher dietary phosphorus to protein ratios are each associated with increased death risk in MHD patients, even after adjustments for serum phosphorus, phosphate binders and their types, and dietary protein, energy, and potassium intakes.

  N Noori , J. D Kopple , C. P Kovesdy , U Feroze , J. J Sim , S. B Murali , A Luna , M Gomez , C Luna , R Bross , A. R Nissenson and K. Kalantar Zadeh
 

Background and objectives: Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients with larger body or fat mass have greater survival than normal to low mass. We hypothesized that mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), a conveniently measured surrogate of lean body mass (LBM), has stronger association with clinical outcomes than triceps skinfold (TSF), a surrogate of fat mass.

Design, settings, participants, & measurements: The associations of TSF, MAMC, and serum creatinine, another LBM surrogate, with baseline short form 36 quality-of-life scores and 5-year survival were examined in 792 MHD patients. In a randomly selected subsample of 118 subjects, LBM was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

Results: Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry–assessed LBM correlated most strongly with MAMC and serum creatinine. Higher MAMC was associated with better short form 36 mental health scale and lower death hazard ratios (HRs) after adjustment for case-mix, malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome, and inflammatory markers. Adjusted death HRs were 1.00, 0.86, 0.69, and 0.63 for the first to fourth MAMC quartiles, respectively. Higher serum creatinine and TSF were also associated with lower death HRs, but these associations were mitigated after multivariate adjustments. Using median values of TSF and MAMC to dichotomize, combined high MAMC with either high or low TSF (compared with low MAMC/TSF) exhibited the greatest survival, i.e., death HRs of 0.52 and 0.59, respectively.

Conclusions: Higher MAMC is a surrogate of larger LBM and an independent predictor of better mental health and greater survival in MHD patients. Sarcopenia-correcting interventions to improve clinical outcomes in this patient population warrant controlled trials.

  C. P Kovesdy , M. Z Molnar , M. E Czira , A Rudas , A Ujszaszi , L Rosivall , M Szathmari , A Covic , A Keszei , G Beko , P Lakatos , J Kosa and I. Mucsi
 

Background and objectives: Obesity is associated with increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A direct effect of adipose tissue on bone turnover through leptin production has been suggested, but such an association has not been explored in kidney transplant recipients.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This study examined associations of serum leptin with PTH and with biomarkers of bone turnover (serum beta crosslaps [CTX, a marker of bone resorption] and osteocalcin [OC, a marker of bone formation]) in 978 kidney transplant recipients. Associations were examined in multivariable regression models. Path analyses were used to determine if the association of leptin with bone turnover is independent of PTH.

Results: Higher leptin levels were associated with higher PTH and lower vitamin D levels, and adjustment for vitamin D attenuated the association between leptin and PTH. However, higher leptin was also significantly associated with lower levels of the bone turnover markers: 1 SD higher leptin was associated with 0.13 lower log-OC (–0.17, –0.08, P < 0.001) and 0.030 lower log-CTX (–0.045, –0.016, P < 0.001) after multivariable adjustments. Path analysis indicated that the association of leptin with PTH was mostly mediated through vitamin D, and that the association between leptin and bone turnover was independent of PTH and vitamin D.

Conclusions: Elevated leptin level is associated with lower bone turnover independent of its effects on serum PTH in kidney transplant recipients.

 
 
 
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