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Articles by C. P Cannon
Total Records ( 7 ) for C. P Cannon
  T. Y Wang , G. C Fonarow , A. F Hernandez , L Liang , G Ellrodt , B. K Nallamothu , B. R Shah , C. P Cannon and E. D. Peterson
 

Background  Recent initiatives have focused on reducing door-to-balloon (DTB) times among patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. However, DTB time is only one of several important AMI care processes. It is unclear whether quality efforts targeted to a single process will facilitate concomitant improvement in other quality measures and outcomes.

Methods  This study examined 101 hospitals (43 678 patients with AMI) in the Get With the Guidelines program. For each hospital, DTB time improvement from 2005 to 2007 was correlated with changes in composite Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services/Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (CMS/JCAHO) core measure performance and in-hospital mortality.

Results  Between 2005 and 2007, hospital geometric mean DTB time decreased from 101 to 87 minutes (P < .001). Mean overall hospital composite CMS/JCAHO core measure performance increased from 93.4% to 96.4% (P < .001), and mortality rates were 5.1% and 4.7% (P = .09) in the early and late periods, respectively. Improvement in hospital DTB time, however, was not significantly correlated with changes in composite quality performance (r = –0.06; P = .55) or with in-hospital mortality (r = 0.06; P = .58). After adjustment for patient mix, hospitals with the most improvement in DTB time did not have significantly greater improvements in either CMS/JCAHO measure performance or mortality.

Conclusions  Within the Get With the Guidelines program, DTB times decreased significantly over time. However, there was minimal correlation between DTB time improvement and changes in other quality measures or mortality. These results emphasize the important need for comprehensive acute myocardial infarction quality-improvement efforts, rather than focusing on single process measures.

  P. G Steg , S James , R. A Harrington , D Ardissino , R. C Becker , C. P Cannon , H Emanuelsson , A Finkelstein , S Husted , H Katus , J Kilhamn , S Olofsson , R. F Storey , W. D Weaver , L Wallentin and for the PLATO Study Group
  Background—

Aspirin and clopidogrel are recommended for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) or undergoing coronary stenting. Ticagrelor, a reversible oral P2Y12-receptor antagonist, provides faster, greater, and more consistent platelet inhibition than clopidogrel and may be useful for patients with acute ST-segment elevation (STE) ACS and planned primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Methods and Result—

Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO), a randomized, double-blind trial, compared ticagrelor with clopidogrel for the prevention of vascular events in 18 624 ACS patients. This report concerns the 7544 ACS patients with STE or left bundle-branch block allocated to either ticagrelor 180-mg loading dose followed by 90 mg twice daily or clopidogrel 300-mg loading dose (with provision for 300 mg clopidogrel at percutaneous coronary intervention) followed by 75 mg daily for 6 to 12 months. The reduction of the primary end point (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death) with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel (10.8% versus 9.4%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.01; P=0.07) was consistent with the overall PLATO results. There was no interaction between presentation with STE/left bundle-branch block and randomized treatment (interaction P=0.29). Ticagrelor reduced several secondary end points, including myocardial infarction alone (HR, 0.80; P=0.03), total mortality (HR, 0.82; P=0.05), and definite stent thrombosis (HR, 0.66; P=0.03). The risk of stroke, low in both groups, was higher with ticagrelor (1.7% versus 1.0%; HR,1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 2.48; P=0.02). Ticagrelor did not affect major bleeding (HR, 0.98; P=0.76).

Conclusion—

In patients with STE-ACS and planned primary percutaneous coronary intervention, the effects of ticagrelor were consistent with those observed in the overall PLATO trial.

Clinical Trial Registration—

URL: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00391872.

  S Bangalore , J Qin , S Sloan , S. A Murphy , C. P Cannon and for the PROVE IT TIMI 22 Trial Investigators
  Background—

Aggressive blood pressure (BP) control has been advocated in patients with acute coronary syndrome, but few data exist in this population relative to cardiovascular outcomes.

Methods and Results—

We evaluated 4162 patients enrolled in the PRavastatin Or atorVastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy–Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (PROVE IT-TIMI) 22 trial (acute coronary syndrome patients randomized to pravastatin 40 mg versus atorvastatin 80 mg). The average follow-up BP (systolic and diastolic) was categorized into 10-mm Hg increments. The primary outcome was a composite of death due to any cause, myocardial infarction, unstable angina requiring rehospitalization, revascularization after 30 days, and stroke. The secondary outcome was a composite of death due to coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or revascularization. The relationship between BP (systolic or diastolic) followed a J- or U-shaped curve association with primary, secondary, and individual outcomes, with increased events rates at both low and high BP values, both unadjusted and after adjustment for baseline variables, baseline C-reactive protein, and on-treatment average levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. A nonlinear Cox proportional hazards model showed a nadir of 136/85 mm Hg (range 130 to 140 mm Hg systolic and 80 to 90 mm Hg diastolic) at which the incidence of primary outcome was lowest. The curve was relatively flat for systolic pressures of 110 to 130 mm Hg and diastolic pressures of 70 to 90 mm Hg.

Conclusions—

After acute coronary syndrome, a J- or U-shaped curve association existed between BP and the risk of future cardiovascular events, with lowest event rates in the BP range of approximately 130 to 140 mm Hg systolic and 80 to 90 mm Hg diastolic and a relatively flat curve for systolic pressures of 110 to 130 mm Hg and diastolic pressures of 70 to 90 mm Hg, which suggests that too low of a pressure (especially <110/70 mm Hg) may be dangerous.

Clinical Trial Registration—

URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00382460.

  M. T Roe , A. Y Chen , C. P Cannon , S Rao , J Rumsfeld , D. J Magid , R Brindis , L. W Klein , W. B Gibler , E. M Ohman , E. D Peterson and on behalf of the CRUSADE and ACTION GWTG Registry Participants
 

Background— The risks of late stent thrombosis with drug-eluting stents (DES) were intensely debated after the presentation of a number of studies highlighting this issue in September 2006. We evaluated trends in the use of DES for patients with non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from 2006 to 2008.

Methods and Results— Temporal patterns of DES use were examined among non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients in the Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Supress ADverse outcomes with Early implementation of the ACC/AHA guidelines (CRUSADE; January 2006 to December 2006) and Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network–Get With The Guidelines (ACTION–GWTG; January 2007 to June 2008) registries to determine how practice patterns changed for patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing PCI. Among the 54 662 patients analyzed, the percentage of patients undergoing PCI by quarter varied from 54% to 58% during the analysis time period. More than 90% of patients undergoing PCI received a DES in the first 3 quarters of 2006 before the public debate about the risks of DES began. Thereafter, the use of DES for PCI patients declined during the fourth quarter of 2006 through the first quarter of 2007 (82% to 67%), gradually declined during quarters 2 to 4 of 2007 (63% to 63% to 59%) but then slightly increased from the first to second quarter of 2008 (58% to 60%). Hospital characteristics did not seem to correlate with temporal changes in DES use, but by the last 2 quarters of the study period, patient characteristics such as white race, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and private or managed care insurance were more common among patients who received a DES compared with the beginning 2 quarters of the study period.

Conclusions— These findings highlight how rapidly treatment decisions in contemporary practice can be affected by public debate related to scientific presentations and publications.

  W. R Lewis , A. G Ellrodt , E Peterson , A. F Hernandez , K. A LaBresh , C. P Cannon , W Pan and G. C. Fonarow
 

Background— Significant disparities have been reported in the application of evidence-based guidelines in the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) in women and the elderly. We hypothesized that participation in a quality-improvement program could improve care for all patients and thus narrow treatment gaps over time.

Methods and Results— Treatment of 237 225 patients hospitalized with CAD was evaluated in the Get With the Guidelines–CAD program from 2002 to 2007. Six quality measures were evaluated in eligible patients without contraindications: aspirin on admission and discharge, β-blockers use at discharge, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor antagonist use, lipid-lowering medication use, and tobacco cessation counseling along with other care metrics. Over time, composite adherence on these 6 measures increased from 86.5% to 97.4% (+10.9%) in men and 84.8% to 96.2% (+11.4%) in women. There was a slight difference in composite adherence by sex that remained significant over time (P<0.0001), but this was confined to patients <75 years. Composite adherence in younger patients (<75 years) increased from 87.1% to 97.7% (+10.6%) and from 83.0% to 95.1% (+12.1%) in the elderly (≥75 years) over time.

Conclusions— Among hospitals participating in Get With the Guidelines–CAD, guideline adherence has improved substantially over time for both women and men and younger and older CAD patients, with only slight age and sex differences in some measures persisting.

  D. M Charytan , L Wallentin , B Lagerqvist , R Spacek , R. J De Winter , N. M Stern , E Braunwald , C. P Cannon and N. K. Choudhry
 

Background and objectives: In the general population, an early invasive strategy of routine coronary angiography is superior to a conservative strategy of selective angiography in patients who are admitted with unstable angina or non–ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI), but the effectiveness of this strategy in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is uncertain.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We conducted a collaborative meta-analysis with data provided by the main authors of identified trials to estimate the effectiveness of early angiography in patients with CKD. The Cochrane, Medline, and EMBASE databases were searched to identify randomized trials that compared invasive and conservative strategies in patients with unstable angina or non-ST MI. Pooled risks ratios were estimated using data from enrolled patients with estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2.

Results: Five randomized trials that enrolled 1453 patients with CKD were included. An early invasive strategy was associated with nonsignificant reductions in all-cause mortality, nonfatal MI, and a composite of death or nonfatal MI. The invasive strategy significantly reduced rehospitalization.

Conclusions: This collaborative study suggests that the benefits of an early invasive strategy are preserved in patients with CKD and that an early invasive approach reduces the risk for rehospitalization and is associated with trends of reduction in the risk for death and nonfatal re-infarction in patients with CKD. Coronary angiography should be considered for patients who have CKD and are admitted with non–ST elevation acute coronary syndromes.

 
 
 
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