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Articles by C. M Sorenson
Total Records ( 3 ) for C. M Sorenson
  D. M Albert , A Neekhra , S Wang , S. R Darjatmoko , C. M Sorenson , R. R Dubielzig and N. Sheibani

Objectives  To study the progressive changes of intense cyclic light–induced retinal degeneration and to determine whether it results in choroidal neovascularization (CNV).

Methods  Albino rats were exposed to 12 hours of 3000-lux cyclic light for 1, 3, or 6 months. Fundus examination, fundus photography, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, and optical coherence tomography were performed prior to euthanization. Light-exposed animals were euthanized after 1, 3, or 6 months for histopathological evaluation. Retinas were examined for the presence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal– and nitrotyrosine-modified proteins by immunofluorescence staining.

Results  Long-term intense cyclic light exposure resulted in retinal degeneration with loss of the outer segments of photoreceptors and approximately two-thirds of the outer nuclear layer as well as development of subretinal pigment epithelium neovascularization after 1 month. Almost the entire outer nuclear layer was absent with the presence of CNV, which penetrated the Bruch membrane and extended into the outer retina after 3 months. Absence of the outer nuclear layer, multiple foci of CNV, retinal pigment epithelial fibrous metaplasia, and connective tissue bands containing blood vessels extending into the retina were observed after 6 months. All intense light–exposed animals showed an increased presence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and nitrotyrosine staining. Optical coherence tomographic and angiographic studies confirmed retinal thinning and leakiness of the newly formed blood vessels.

Conclusions  Our results suggest that albino rats develop progressive stages of retinal degeneration and CNV after long-term intense cyclic light exposure, allowing the detailed study of the pathogenesis and treatment of age-related macular degeneration.

Clinical Relevance  The ability to study the progressive pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration and CNV will provide detailed knowledge about the disease and aid in the development of target-specific therapy.

  Y Tang , E. A Scheef , Z Gurel , C. M Sorenson , C. R Jefcoate and N. Sheibani

We have recently shown that deletion of constitutively expressed CYP1B1 is associated with attenuation of retinal endothelial cell (EC) capillary morphogenesis (CM) in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. This was largely caused by increased intracellular oxidative stress and increased production of thrombospondin-2, an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that endothelium nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression is dramatically decreased in the ECs prepared from retina, lung, heart, and aorta of CYP1B1-deficient (CYP1B1–/–) mice compared with wild-type (CYP1B1+/+) mice. The eNOS expression was also decreased in retinal vasculature of CYP1B1–/– mice. Inhibition of eNOS activity in cultured CYP1B1+/+ retinal ECs blocked CM and was concomitant with increased oxidative stress, like in CYP1B1–/– retinal ECs. In addition, expression of eNOS in CYP1B1–/– retinal ECs or their incubation with a nitric oxide (NO) donor enhanced NO levels, lowered oxidative stress, and improved cell migration and CM. Inhibition of CYP1B1 activity in the CYP1B1+/+ retinal ECs resulted in reduced NO levels and attenuation of CM. In contrast, expression of CYP1B1 increased NO levels and enhanced CM of CYP1B1–/– retinal ECs. Furthermore, attenuation of CYP1B1 expression with small interfering RNA proportionally lowered eNOS expression and NO levels in wild-type cells. Together, our results link CYP1B1 metabolism in retinal ECs with sustained eNOS activity and NO synthesis and/or bioavailability and low oxidative stress and thrombospondin-2 expression. Thus CYP1B1 and eNOS cooperate in different ways to lower oxidative stress and thereby to promote CM in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo.

  S Park , T. A DiMaio , E. A Scheef , C. M Sorenson and N. Sheibani

Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules with important roles in angiogenesis and inflammation. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms, and the role that specific PECAM-1 isoforms play in these processes, remain elusive. We recently showed attenuation of retinal vascular development and neovascularization in PECAM-1-deficient (PECAM-1–/–) mice. To gain further insight into the role of PECAM-1 in these processes, we isolated primary retinal endothelial cells (EC) from wild-type (PECAM-1+/+) and PECAM-1–/– mice. Lack of PECAM-1 had a significant impact on endothelial cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, resulting in attenuation of cell migration and capillary morphogenesis. Mechanistically these changes were associated with a significant decrease in expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in PECAM-1–/– retinal EC. PECAM-1–/– retinal EC also exhibited a lower rate of apoptosis under basal and challenged conditions, consistent with their increased growth rate. Furthermore, reexpression of PECAM-1 was sufficient to restore migration and capillary morphogenesis of null cells in an isoform-specific manner. Thus PECAM-1 expression modulates proangiogenic properties of EC, and these activities are significantly influenced by alternative splicing of its cytoplasmic domain.

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