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Articles by C. M Ballantyne
Total Records ( 2 ) for C. M Ballantyne
  A Brautbar , C. M Ballantyne , K Lawson , V Nambi , L Chambless , A. R Folsom , J. T Willerson and E. Boerwinkle

Background— A single-nucleotide polymorphism on chromosome 9p21, rs10757274 (9p21 allele), has been shown to predict coronary heart disease (CHD) in whites. We evaluated whether adding the 9p21 allele to traditional risk factors (RFs) improved CHD risk prediction in whites from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and whether changes in risk prediction would modify lipid therapy recommendations.

Methods and Results— Whites (n=9998) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study for whom the 9p21 genotype and traditional RF information was available were included. Using Cox proportional hazards models, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Cardiovascular Risk Score, which is based on traditional RFs, was determined. A total of 1349 individuals (13.5%) developed incident CHD events during a period of 14.6 years. Adding the 9p21 allele to traditional RFs was associated with a hazard ratio of incident CHD of 1.2 per allele (P<0.000003) and a significant increase in the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic from 0.782 to 0.786 (95% CI, 0.001, 0.007). The 9p21 allele’s greatest influence to the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Cardiovascular Risk Score was observed in the intermediate-low (>5% to ≤10% 10-year CHD risk) and intermediate-high (>10% to ≤20% 10-year CHD risk) categories, with 12.1% and 12.6% reclassified, respectively. This may impact therapy because 90% of these reclassified individuals had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >100 mg/dL.

Conclusion— Adding the 9p21 allele to traditional RFs in whites in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study modestly improved CHD risk prediction in the intermediate categories.

  M Vergeer , R Zhou , M. L Bots , R Duivenvoorden , J Koglin , F Akdim , Y. B Mitchel , R Huijgen , A Sapre , E de Groot , E. J. G Sijbrands , R. C Pasternak , C Gagne , A. D Marais , C. M Ballantyne , J. L Isaacsohn , A. F Stalenhoef and J. J. P. Kastelein

Until recently, patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) were considered the best subjects for the assessment of changes in carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in randomized intervention trials. Our aims were to investigate whether contemporary statin-treated HeFH patients still show accelerated cIMT increase and to assess the impact of statin treatment, before and after random assignment, on atherosclerosis progression.

Methods and Results—

We retrospectively evaluated cIMT change, and prior statin treatment and postbaseline LDL-C change as predictors of cIMT change, in 1513 HeFH patients who were randomly assigned to the statin arms of the early ASAP and more recent RADIANCE 1, CAPTIVATE, and ENHANCE studies. In the 3 recent studies combined, mean cIMT increased at only 33%of the rate of the simvastatin-treated patients in the ASAP study (0.014 mm/2 years [95% confidence interval, –0.0003–0.028] versus 0.041 mm/2 years [95% confidence interval, 0.020–0.061]; P<0.05). Patients whose statin therapy could be intensified, as evidenced by an LDL-C decrease after the initiation of on-trial statin therapy, showed cIMT decrease in the first 6 to 12 months and a much lower cIMT increase measured over the full 2 years. In line with this, previously statin-naive HeFH patients showed a lower overall cIMT increase.


Over the years, intensification of statin therapy in HeFH patients has resulted in an impressive decrease in carotid atherosclerosis progression. In studies that assess other antiatherosclerotic modalities, statin therapy may still induce rapid changes in cIMT. For future cIMT studies, our analyses suggest that patient populations other than intensively pretreated HeFH patients should be selected and that the statin regimen should not be changed on study initiation.

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