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Articles by C. Lemus
Total Records ( 7 ) for C. Lemus
  M. Becerril , C. Lemus , J.G. Herrera , M. Huerta , M. Alonso-Spilsbury , R. Ramirez-Necoechea , D. Mota-Rojas and J. Ly
  A 2x2 factorial arrangement was used for evaluating carcass traits and meat quality of 22 Yorkshire x Landrace (YL) and 13 Pelón Mexicano (PM) castrate male and female pigs 63 days old which were allotted at random during 16 weeks into 2 rearing systems consisting of total (15 and 7 pigs) or partial confinement (7 and 6 pigs). Partial confinement included rearing animals outdoors in a grass prairie (Brachiaria brizantha) from 9-16 h. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) for the interaction rearing system x genotype in any measurement conducted throughout this experiment. Highly significant (p<0.001) differences between genotypes was encountered for carcass yield and primary cuts adjusted to slaughter weight as covariable. However, carcass yield expressed as percentage of slaughter weight only tended (p<0.103) to favour YL pigs. Differences between rearing systems were less marked, with better carcass traits in either totally confined YL animals or partially confined PM pigs. The genotype effect was at least significantly (p<0.01) different in all measurements indicating a higher fat content in carcasses of PM pigs, when compared to YL animals. Length of some reservoir digestive organs were significantly (p<0.001) higher in PM than in YL pigs. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in meat quality indices, including meat pH, water holding capacity, color and marbling. It is considered that a total or partial confinement, consisting on daily grazing outdoors, rearing system, has less influence on carcass traits in pigs when Pelón Mexicano and Yorkshire x Landrace pigs are compared.
  M. Becerril , C. Lemus , J.G. Herrera , M. Huerta , M. Alonso-Spilsbury , R. Ramirez-Necoechea , D. Mota-Rojas and J. Ly
  A 2x2 factorial arrangement was used for evaluating performance traits during 16 weeks in 2 groups of 22 Yorkshire x Landrace (YL) and 13 Pelón Mexicano (PM) castrate male and female pigs 63 days old which were allotted at random into 2 rearing systems consisting of total (15 and 7 pigs) or partial confinement (7 and 6 pigs). Partial confinement included rearing animals outdoors in a grass prairie (Brachiaria brizantha) from 9:00-16:00 h. No significant differences (p<0.05) for the interaction rearing system x genotype were found in any measured performance trait. It was observed that treatments involving Yorkshire x Landrace animals had a high significant (p<0.001) live weight at any age, as compared to the PM pigs. It was evident that YL pigs had a higher daily feed intake than PM animals and on the other hand, results from animals in confinement clearly indicated that feed intake in those pigs was higher than in the others, permitted to graze during 8 h every day. Calculated daily gain was 820 and 757 g in YL pigs when reared in total confinement or partially outdoors, whereas this same trait was 414 and 335 g in PM pigs. When a comparison was made between improved and local pigs reared in total confinement, feed conversion was on average, 3.07 kg kg-1 in the YL animals and 5.03 kg kg-1 in the PM pigs.
  Alicia Dominguez , T.A.M. Rosales and C. Lemus
  A possible relationship between vagina size and reproductive activity of sows with different parity number, was evaluated in 491 Landrace Duroc Yorkshire of none, first, second and third parity from a commercial farm. There were significant differences (p< 0.001) between sows of first parity and the other two, being lesser the length of vagina from nulipare sows (25.17 cm) with no relevant differences between females from 1-3 parities (28.34 cm). Average growth of vagina-cervix length between none and one parity was 3.22 cm. These results suggest that vagina growth is stabilized after first farrowing. When vagina-cervix length was related to total and alive born piglets, these interdependences were not significant (p>0.05) among them for any parity. It is suggested that vagina-cervix length is not a relevant factor for selection of sows and therefore this trait is not indicative of a good or bad reproductive activity of sows in the future either. In this connection, other factors of a greater fiability should be taken into account from the point of view of the animal productive development.
  F. Grageola , C. Lemus , R.A. Alonso , C. Camacho and J. Ly
  In this study a 22 factorial arrangement was used to study the effect of sex and age on serum insulin levels in 24 growing Mexican Cuino pigs between 3 and 6 months old. There were no significant differences (p< 0.05) neither for sex age interaction nor for sex in any measured index. Overall, Mexican Cuino pigs had 14.4 and 50.8 kg of live weigh (p< 0.001) and 9.33 and 19.26 u mL 1 of fasting serum insulin levels (p< 0.001) at 3 and 6 months old, respectively. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant differences (p< 0.05) among age, live weigth and fasting insulin levels in the examined period of life in growing Mexican Cuino pigs. According to the present evaluation, hiperinsulinemia should be present in Mexican Cuino pigs, as it has been found in either obese conventional genotypes of pigs or genetically manipulated to be small and obese animals. This effect was accentuated as pigs aged up to 6 months life. Sex appeared to have no influence on serum status of Mexican Cuino pig insulin.
  Consuelo Diaz , F. Grageola , C. Lemus and J. Ly
  Six crossbred castrate male pigs weighing on average 55 kg each were randomly allocated to 3 diets according to a duplicate 33 Latin square design to study digestion characteristics of cell wall fractions as determined by 0, 10 and 20% sun-dried leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala Lam. de Wit) Leaf Meal (LM) in diets based on sugar cane molasses type B and soybean meal. A significant (p< 0.01) decrease in lignin and cell content (1-NDF) digestibility was observed by increasing the level of LM in the diet. There was no treatment effect on digestibility of crude fibre and other detergent fractions of fibre. A significant interdependence was found between faecal fresh material output and WHC (p< 0.001, R2 = 0.896). It could be suggested that a moderate increase in LM up to 20% in the diet, should not determine a marked, deleterious effect on fibrous fraction digestibility as measured at the rectal site of growing pigs.
  J. Ly , F. Grageola , C. Lemus and M. Castro
  A change over design was used to study in two experiments the effect of inclusion of a Cuban natural zeolite (5%) in a soybean/grain meal formulated to contain 20% leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) meal. Responses criteria were apparent ileal and rectal digestibility and N balance indices in 6 YorkshireLandrace castrate male pigs each weighing on average 50 kg of initial live weight. In experiment 1, inclusion of 5% zeolite in the diet, determined a decrease in rectal digestibility of organic matter from 83.3-77.4% (p<0.10) and from 78.3-72.4% (p<0.05), respectively. In experiment 2, ileal digestibility of energy and N increased (p<0.05) respectively when 5% zeolite was added to the diet. Faecal concentration of total short chain fatty acids and ammonia were significantly (p<0.05) higher in pigs fed the diet containing zeolite (103 and 30 mmol/100 g DM) than when the animals were given the control feed (85 and 20 mmol/100 g DM) indicating a net capture of these metabolites by zeolite. In intact animals, a trend for retention of N to be higher in the diet with zeolite than in the other with no zeolite (48.4 and 47.0% of N intake) was noted. It is suggested that the inclusion of 5% of a Cuban natural zeolite in the diet is beneficial for digestive processes in the pig when this animal species is fed tree foliage as leucaena leaves. The incorporation of zeolite to this type of diet could influence pig digestive processes in a positive manner, probably in N economy. Other trials could be conducted to fix the optimal level of inclusion of zeolite in this type of diets.
  Gonzalez H.G. , D. Mota-Rojas , M. Becerril-Herrera , C.Casas-Garcia , M. Zermeno , R. Ramrez-Necoechea , J.A.Toca-Ramirez , C. Lemus , J. Toca-Ramirez and M. Alonso-Spilsbury
  In Mexico, equine use for meat production is not commonly found; the highest percentage of equine meat that can be possibly consumed comes mostly from culled animals. The objective of the present study was to characterize the slaughter performance and test the effect of gender in the incidence of injuries during transportation, in offals and hot carcass yields in twelve creole horses. Results indicate an average live weight of 296 Kg and carcass weight of 175 Kg, equivalent to 60% yield. It is possible that the husbandry method commonly used on pasturing the animals, decreased the thoracic development and increased the corporal length and diameter of the leg. With regard to slaughtering yield, red viscera represented 4.3%, green viscera 30%, skin 6%, limbs 2.8%, head 4.4% and loss at slaughter 1.5% of the total live weight. Average body condition in the horses was poor. No significant differences were observed between genders in the presence of injuries, although there was an influence of the arrival position on the severity of injuries; animals that were facing the direction of travel (rear-facing) showed injury 2 affecting subcutaneous and muscular tissues, whereas animals facing backward did not show injuries or these were not too severe.
 
 
 
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