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Articles by C. L Shapiro
Total Records ( 2 ) for C. L Shapiro
  J. R Weng , C. H Tsai , H. A Omar , A. M Sargeant , D Wang , S. K Kulp , C. L Shapiro and C. S. Chen

The molecular heterogeneity of human tumors challenges the development of effective preventive and therapeutic strategies. To overcome this issue, a rational approach is the concomitant targeting of clinically relevant cellular abnormalities with combination therapy or a potent multi-targeted agent. OSU-A9 is a novel indole-3-carbinol derivative that retains the parent compound's ability to perturb multiple components of oncogenic signaling, but provides marked advantages in chemical stability and antitumor potency. Here, we show that OSU-A9 exhibits two orders of magnitude greater potency than indole-3-carbinol in inducing apoptosis in various breast cancer cell lines with distinct genetic abnormalities, including MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKBR3, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration in the range of 1.2–1.8 µM vis-à-vis 200 µM for indole-3-carbinol. This differential potency was paralleled by OSU-A9’s superior activity against multiple components of the Akt–nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B) and stress response signaling pathways. Notable among these were the increased estrogen receptor (ER)-β/ER expression ratio, reduced expression of HER2 and CXCR4 and the upregulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression and its downstream target NF-E2 p45-regulated factor (Nrf2). Non-malignant MCF-10A cells were resistant to OSU-A9’s antiproliferative effects. Daily oral administration of OSU-A9 at 25 and 50 mg/kg for 49 days significantly inhibited MCF-7 tumor growth by 59 and 70%, respectively, without overt signs of toxicity or evidence of induced hepatic biotransformation enzymes. In summary, OSU-A9 is a potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of the Akt–NF-B signaling network, targeting multiple aspects of breast tumor pathogenesis and progression. Thus, its translational potential for the treatment or prevention of breast cancer warrants further investigation.

  J. E Garber , S Halabi , S. M Tolaney , E Kaplan , L Archer , J. N Atkins , S Edge , C. L Shapiro , L Dressler , E. M Paskett , G Kimmick , J Orcutt , A Scalzo , E Winer , E Levine , N Shahab , N Berliner and for the Cancer and Leukemia Group B

Tamoxifen use has been associated with increased risk of thromboembolic events (TEs) in women with breast cancer and women at high risk for the disease. Factor V Leiden (FVL) is the most common inherited clotting factor mutation and also confers increased thrombosis risk. We investigated whether FVL was associated with TE risk in women with early-stage breast cancer who took adjuvant tamoxifen.


A case–control study was conducted among 34 Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) institutions. We matched each of 124 women who had experienced a documented TE while taking adjuvant tamoxifen for breast cancer (but who were not necessarily on a CALGB treatment trial) to two control subjects (women who took adjuvant tamoxifen but did not experience TE) by age at diagnosis (±5 years). DNA from blood was analyzed for FVL mutations. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and to evaluate other potential factors associated with TE and tamoxifen use. All P values are based on two-sided tests.


FVL mutations were identified in 23 (18.5%) case and 12 (4.8%) control subjects (OR = 4.66, 95% confidence interval = 2.14 to 10.14, P < .001). In the multivariable model, FVL mutation was associated with TE (OR = 4.73, 95% confidence interval = 2.10 to 10.68, P < .001). Other statistically significant factors associated with TE risk were personal history of TE and smoking.


Among women taking adjuvant tamoxifen for early-stage breast cancer, those who had a TE were nearly five times more likely to carry a FVL mutation than those who did not have a TE. Postmenopausal women should be evaluated for the FVL mutation before prescription of adjuvant tamoxifen if a positive test would alter therapeutic decision making.

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