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Articles by C. J Sullivan
Total Records ( 3 ) for C. J Sullivan
  A. R Piquero , C. J Sullivan and D. P. Farrington
 

In empirically assessing offending trajectory groups, some researchers have identified unexpected classes of offenders. Two such groups are (a) short-term, high-rate offenders and (b) long-term, low-rate offenders. On some aggregate benchmarks, such as lifetime volume of crime, these two groups of offenders may be comparable. Yet a more detailed examination of their careers may reveal important distinctions regarding the correlates of offending, the extent of involvement in crime, and associated costs to society. Furthermore, unpacking the history, profile, and trajectory of these two groups of offenders may suggest unique policy options. The authors examined the question of equivalency in these groups and the factors that contribute to their offending using longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development through age 40. Theoretical and policy implications associated with criminal justice response are discussed.

  C. J Sullivan , P Wilcox and G. C. Ousey
 

A rapidly growing body of criminological research focuses on longitudinal trajectories of offending, with the aim of exploring stability and change in antisocial behavior. A particularly intriguing debate within this area involves the issue of whether there are multiple classes of offenders defined by distinct longitudinal patterns of offending. Parallel research on criminal victimization, however, is lacking, with few studies exploring potential variation in individual trajectories of victimization. The current analysis uses data from a panel of nearly 4,000 adolescents observed across a 4-year period to address this question. The authors examined whether there are distinct classes of victimization trajectories across this time period. The analysis revealed four groups. Descriptive analyses for key correlates of victimization were then conducted to explore their potential correspondence with those of the observed victimization classes. The findings have implications for theory and empirical research regarding between-individual differences and intraindividual change in victimization.

  H Wessells , C. J Sullivan , Y Tsubota , K. L Engel , B Kim , N. E Olson , D Thorner and K. Chitaley
 

To determine specific molecular features of endothelial cells (ECs) relevant to the physiological process of penile erection we compared gene expression of human EC derived from corpus cavernosum of men with and without erectile dysfunction (HCCEC) to coronary artery (HCAEC) and umbilical vein (HUVEC) using Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays and GeneSifter software. Genes differentially expressed across samples were partitioned around medoids to identify genes with highest expression in HCCEC. A total of 190 genes/transcripts were highly expressed only in HCCEC. Gene Ontology classification indicated cavernosal enrichment in genes related to cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, pattern specification and organogenesis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed high expression of genes relating to ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesions, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. Real-time PCR confirmed expression differences in cadherins 2 and 11, claudin 11 (CLDN11), desmoplakin, and versican. CLDN11, a component of tight junctions not previously described in ECs, was highly expressed only in HCCEC and its knockdown by siRNA significantly reduced transendothelial electrical resistance in HCCEC. Overall, cavernosal ECs exhibited a transcriptional profile encoding matrix and adhesion proteins that regulate structural and functional characteristics of blood vessels. Contribution of the tight junction protein CLDN11 to barrier function in endothelial cells is novel and may reflect hemodynamic requirements of the corpus cavernosum.

 
 
 
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