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Articles by C. E Gordon
Total Records ( 2 ) for C. E Gordon
  C. E Gordon , D Feller Kopman , E. M Balk and G. W. Smetana

Background  Little is known about the factors related to the development of pneumothorax following thoracentesis. We aimed to determine the mean pneumothorax rate following thoracentesis and to identify risk factors for pneumothorax through a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods  We reviewed MEDLINE-indexed studies from January 1, 1966, through April 1, 2009, and included studies of any design with at least 10 patients that reported the pneumothorax rate following thoracentesis. Two investigators independently extracted data on the pneumothorax rate, risk factors for pneumothorax, and study methodological quality.

Results  Twenty-four studies reported pneumothorax rates following 6605 thoracenteses. The overall pneumothorax rate was 6.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6%-7.8%), and 34.1% of pneumothoraces required chest tube insertion. Ultrasonography use was associated with significantly lower risk of pneumothorax (odds ratio [OR], 0.3; 95% CI, 0.2-0.7). Lower pneumothorax rates were observed with experienced operators (3.9% vs 8.5%, P = .04), but this was nonsignificant within studies directly comparing this factor (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.2-2.3). Pneumothorax was more likely following therapeutic thoracentesis (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.8-3.8), in conjunction with periprocedural symptoms (OR, 26.6; 95% CI, 2.7-262.5), and in association with, although nonsignificantly, mechanical ventilation (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 0.95-16.8). Two or more needle passes conferred a nonsignificant increased risk of pneumothorax (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 0.3-20.1).

Conclusions  Iatrogenic pneumothorax is a common complication of thoracentesis and frequently requires chest tube insertion. Real-time ultrasonography use is a modifiable factor that reduces the pneumothorax rate. Performance of thoracentesis for therapeutic purposes and in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation confers a higher likelihood of pneumothorax. Experienced operators may have lower pneumothorax rates. Patient safety may be improved by changes in clinical practice in accord with these findings.

  C. E Gordon , K Uhlig , J Lau , C. H Schmid , A. S Levey and J. B. Wong

Background and objectives: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is prevalent in hemodialysis patients and causes excess mortality. Interferon (IFN) treatment of chronic HCV infection in hemodialysis patients results in high sustained virological response (SVR) rates 6 mo after treatment. The authors aimed to identify factors associated with SVR in hemodialysis patients through analysis of individual patient data obtained from systematic review of published literature.

Design, setting, participants & measurements: Medline was searched from 1966 through February 2009, and prospective studies describing IFN treatment of hemodialysis patients with chronic HCV infection with published individual patient data were included. To identify factors associated with SVR, logistic regression was applied with adjustment for study.

Results: Twenty studies of IFN treatment provided data on 428 patients. Overall SVR was 45% and in univariate analyses was higher with: 1) three million units or higher three times weekly of IFN; 2) treatment for at least 6 mo; 3) treatment completion; 4) lower baseline HCV RNA; 5) female gender; and 6) early virological negativity. Although limited by missing data, these relationships persisted in multivariate regression.

Conclusions: SVR is more likely with larger IFN dose, longer treatment duration, treatment completion, female gender, lower HCV RNA and early virological negativity. For appropriate treatment candidates, regimens should consist of three million units of IFN three times weekly for at least 6 mo, with patients encouraged to complete the full course.

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