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Articles by C. C Harris
Total Records ( 3 ) for C. C Harris
  L. E Jones , L Ying , A. B Hofseth , E Jelezcova , R. W Sobol , S Ambs , C. C Harris , M. G Espey , L. J Hofseth and M. D. Wyatt
 

Chronic generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can cause DNA damage and may also directly modify DNA repair proteins. RNS-modified DNA is repaired predominantly by the base excision repair (BER) pathway, which includes the alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG). The AAG active site contains several tyrosines and cysteines that are potential sites for modification by RNS. In vitro, we demonstrate that RNS differentially alter AAG activity depending on the site and type of modification. Nitration of tyrosine 162 impaired 1,N6-ethenoadenine (A)-excision activity, whereas nitrosation of cysteine 167 increased A excision. To understand the effects of RNS on BER in vivo, we examined intestinal adenomas for levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and AAG. A striking correlation between AAG and iNOS expression was observed (r = 0.76, P = 0.00002). Interestingly, there was no correlation between changes in AAG levels and enzymatic activity. We found AAG to be nitrated in human adenomas, suggesting that this RNS modification is relevant in the human disease. Expression of key downstream components of BER, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) and DNA polymerase β (POLβ), was also examined. POLβ protein was increased in nearly all adenomas compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues, whereas APE1 expression was only increased in approximately half of the adenomas and also was relocalized to the cytoplasm in adenomas. Collectively, the results suggest that BER is dysregulated in colon adenomas. RNS-induced posttranslational modification of AAG is one mechanism of BER dysregulation, and the type of modification may define the role of AAG during carcinogenesis.

  S Volinia , M Galasso , S Costinean , L Tagliavini , G Gamberoni , A Drusco , J Marchesini , N Mascellani , M. E Sana , R Abu Jarour , C Desponts , M Teitell , R Baffa , R Aqeilan , M. V Iorio , C Taccioli , R Garzon , G Di Leva , M Fabbri , M Catozzi , M Previati , S Ambs , T Palumbo , M Garofalo , A Veronese , A Bottoni , P Gasparini , C. C Harris , R Visone , Y Pekarsky , A de la Chapelle , M Bloomston , M Dillhoff , L. Z Rassenti , T. J Kipps , K Huebner , F Pichiorri , D Lenze , S Cairo , M. A Buendia , P Pineau , A Dejean , N Zanesi , S Rossi , G. A Calin , C. G Liu , J Palatini , M Negrini , A Vecchione , A Rosenberg and C. M. Croce
 

We studied miRNA profiles in 4419 human samples (3312 neoplastic, 1107 nonmalignant), corresponding to 50 normal tissues and 51 cancer types. The complexity of our database enabled us to perform a detailed analysis of microRNA (miRNA) activities. We inferred genetic networks from miRNA expression in normal tissues and cancer. We also built, for the first time, specialized miRNA networks for solid tumors and leukemias. Nonmalignant tissues and cancer networks displayed a change in hubs, the most connected miRNAs. hsa-miR-103/106 were downgraded in cancer, whereas hsa-miR-30 became most prominent. Cancer networks appeared as built from disjointed subnetworks, as opposed to normal tissues. A comparison of these nets allowed us to identify key miRNA cliques in cancer. We also investigated miRNA copy number alterations in 744 cancer samples, at a resolution of 150 kb. Members of miRNA families should be similarly deleted or amplified, since they repress the same cellular targets and are thus expected to have similar impacts on oncogenesis. We correctly identified hsa-miR-17/92 family as amplified and the hsa-miR-143/145 cluster as deleted. Other miRNAs, such as hsa-miR-30 and hsa-miR-204, were found to be physically altered at the DNA copy number level as well. By combining differential expression, genetic networks, and DNA copy number alterations, we confirmed, or discovered, miRNAs with comprehensive roles in cancer. Finally, we experimentally validated the miRNA network with acute lymphocytic leukemia originated in Mir155 transgenic mice. Most of miRNAs deregulated in these transgenic mice were located close to hsa-miR-155 in the cancer network.

 
 
 
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