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Articles by C. Blake Gilks
Total Records ( 2 ) for C. Blake Gilks
  Kobel Martin , Steve E Kalloger , David G Huntsman , Jennifer L Santos , Kenneth D Swenerton , Jeffrey D. Seidman, and C. Blake Gilks
  Although there are recognized differences in the type of ovarian carcinomas between those tumors diagnosed at low versus high stage, there is a lack of data on stage distribution of ovarian carcinomas diagnosed according to the current histopathologic criteria from large population-based cohorts. We reviewed full slide sets of 1009 cases of 2555 patients diagnosed with ovarian carcinoma that were referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency over a 16-year period (1984 to 2000). On the basis of the reviewed cases we extrapolated the distribution of tumor type in low-stage (I/II) and high-stage (III/IV) tumors. We then compared the frequencies with those seen in a large hospital practice. The overall frequency of tumor types was as follows: high-grade serous–68.1%, clear-cell–12.2%, endometrioid–11.3%, mucinous–3.4%, low-grade serous–3.4%, rare types–1.6%. High-grade serous carcinomas accounted for 35.5% of stage I/II tumors and 87.7% of stage III/IV tumors. In contrast, clear-cell (26.2% vs. 4.5%), endometrioid (26.6% vs. 2.5%), and mucinous (7.5% vs. 1.2%) carcinomas were relatively more common among the low–stage versus high-stage tumors. This distribution was found to be very similar in 410 consecutive cases from the Washington Hospital Center. The distribution of ovarian carcinoma types differs significantly in patients with low-stage versus high-stage ovarian carcinoma when contemporary diagnostic criteria are used, with consistent results seen in 2 independent case series. These findings reflect important biological differences in the behavior of the major tumor types, with important clinical implications.
  Abdulmohsen Alkushi , Martin Kobel , Steve Kalloger and C. Blake Gilks
  High-grade endometrial carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors and include grade 3 endometrioid (EC-3), serous (SC), and clear cell carcinomas (CCC). There are conflicting data about the prognosis of these subtypes of high-grade endometrial carcinoma; this may be a result of lack of reproducibility in classifying tumor cell type. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in immunophenotype and outcome in a series of high-grade endometrial carcinomas, focusing on the comparison of EC-3 versus SC. We selected 180 endometrial carcinomas of SC, EC, or CCC type. No mixed carcinomas were included in the study. We chose the following immunohistochemical markers, estrogen receptor (ER), insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3), p16, p53, progesterone receptor (PR), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) as being significantly differentially expressed in endometrial carcinoma subtypes. The tumors were stratified into 4 groups on the basis of their cell type and grade: EC grade 1 or 2, EC-3, SC, and CCC. Univariate survival analysis revealed significant differences in outcome between the 4 groups (P<0.0001), with significantly longer disease-specific survival for grade 1 or 2 EC versus EC-3 (P=0.0001), and EC-3 versus SC (P=0.0003). p16, PTEN, and IMP3 expression was observed more frequently in SC compared with EC-3 (P<0.0001, P=0.021, and P=0.031, respectively). These 3 markers showed the highest sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between EC-3 and SC, with receiver operating characteristics area under the curve of 0.85, 0.69, and 0.71, respectively. ER and p53 approached but did not reach significance for differential expression in EC-3 versus SC (P=0.055 and P=0.068, respectively). A combination of p16 and PTEN predicts EC-3 versus SC with a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 96.8%. p16 and PTEN can aid in distinguishing between EC-3 and SC of the endometrium, and are superior to ER, PR, and p53 for this purpose. EC-3 carcinomas have a significantly better prognosis than SC carcinomas of the endometrium.
 
 
 
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