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Articles by C. A. Fritts
Total Records ( 9 ) for C. A. Fritts
  C. A. Fritts , J. H. Kersey and P. W. Waldroup
  Protein supplements produced by rendering of whole hens at the end of their production cycle (spent hen meal) was used to provide a portion of the diets of laying hens in an 84 d feeding trial. Diets were formulated to provide 0, 5, 10, or 15% spent hen meal (SHM) from three different locations using conventional rendering procedures. The diets were formulated to provide digestible amino acids at a minimum of 95% of recommended (NRC, 1994) total amino acids for laying hens consuming 100 g of feed per day. Results of the study indicate that nutritionally valuable high-protein meals can be produced from whole spent hens using conventional rendering procedures. Such meals may be safely used at levels up to 10% in diets for laying hens provided good analytical procedures are followed to determine nutritional content. Due to the high level of residual fat and the highly unsaturated nature of this fat, it will be necessary to insure that adequate amounts of a suitable antioxidant is used during manufacturing to prevent rancidity development.
  E. O. Oviedo-Rondon , C. A. Fritts and P. W. Waldroup
  Estimation of amino acid requirements is a complex problem where many factors such as experimental conditions, genetic strain, gender, growth rate, protein quality and level of other dietary nutrients may interfere with the response. Due to the difficulties of using empirical research to resolve these problems, several mathematical growth models have been developed which could be useful for this purpose. Among the models proposed, the OmniPro® II growth model was chosen to evaluate its accuracy to estimate protein and amino acid requirements for broilers under a commercial feeding program. Diets formulated based on levels of protein and amino acids estimated by OmniPro® II were compared with diets based on NRC (1994) recommendations. Significant differences between sexes were observed for all variables evaluated. Broilers fed diets formulated with 100% of OmniPro® II estimations had BW that was similar to those fed diets based on NRC or 110% OmniPro, and were significantly heavier than those fed the 90% OmniPro diets. The feed conversion of male broilers fed diets based on OmniPro recommendations was significantly better than that of chicks fed diets based on NRC recommendations. Females fed with diets according to OmniPro or NRC had the highest dressing percentage, and differed only from those fed the 90% OmniPro diets. These data suggest that nutrient estimations generated by the OmniPro® II support performance equal to or better than that of broilers fed diets based on NRC nutrient recommendations.
  P. W. Waldroup , J. H. Kersey and C. A. Fritts
  Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of balance among the branched-chain amino acids Leu, Ile, and Val in broiler diets when levels of these amino acids were deemed adequate. High levels of Leu were obtained by either increasing the quantity of corn gluten meal (disproportionately high in Leu relative to Ile and Val) or by supplementing a corn-soybean meal diet with crystalline Leu. Supplements of Ile and Val were added to aliquots of the high Leu diets to maintain Ile:Leu:Val ratios similar to those observed in diets at the lowest level of Leu. Live performance and organ weights of chicks grown to 21 d on these diets were evaluated. The results of the present studies suggest that an antagonism among or between Leu, Ile, and Val is not likely to result in depressed performance of broilers fed practical type diets when levels of these amino acids are above their minimum requirements. The primary effect noted in these studies was a reduction in feed intake as the level of corn gluten meal increased, attributed primarily to changes in texture of the diet. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential impact of an imbalance in diets with reduced levels of crude protein where one or more of the branched-chain amino acids may be at minimal dietary levels with high levels of Leu from corn protein.
  S. E. Madrigal , S.E. Watkins , N. B. Anthony , C. E. Wall , C. A. Fritts and P. W. Waldroup
  Two studies were conducted in environmental chambers to evaluate different dietary modifications on the incidence or severity of ascites, leg disorders, and sudden death syndrome in males of two commercial broiler strains and their reciprocal crosses. A high energy-high nutrient density diet (HE) series served as the positive control. Two other diet series consisted of a high fiber (HF) diet fed 7 to 21 days of age, followed by the HE series, and a low energy-low nutrient density diet during the early growth phase, as suggested by a major breeder. All diets were pelleted. In one study, a low ventilation model was used while in the second study a low temperature model was used. However, due to limitations of the system we were unable to attain the desired low temperatures. In both studies, however, atmospheric levels of CO2 and ammonia were greatly elevated. There were no differences in incidence or severity of ascites, leg disorders, or sudden death syndrome among broilers fed the different dietary regimes to 49 days of age. Broilers fed diets designed to reduce early growth rate were significantly lighter than those fed the HE diets at 21 days of age. At 49 days of age body weights were not always significantly different but quantitative weight differences were equal or greater than those observed at 21 days of age. It is possible that under environmental conditions more favorable to the development of ascites that dietary modification may prove beneficial. In these studies, however, live performance was reduced by the dietary modifications with no beneficial effects on reduction of ascites.
  C. A. Fritts and P. W. Waldroup
  A study was conducted to evaluate the use of Bio-Mos®, a mannan oligosaccharide derived from the cell wall of yeast, as a potential replacement for growth promoting antibiotics in the diet of growing turkeys. Bio-Mos® was added to nutritionally complete turkey diets at the rate of 0.05 and 0.10%. The growth-promoting antibiotics bambermycins and bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) were added at 2.2 and 55 mg/kg, respectively. One group was fed the diet with no supplements and served as the negative control. Male turkeys of a commercial Large White strain were fed the test diets from day old to 20 wk of age. Birds were weighed at intervals through the trial and samples of birds processed at 20 wk for parts yield and determination of intestinal breaking strength. Body weight, mortality, breast meat yield, and intestinal breaking strength were not significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by dietary treatments. Feed conversion from 0 to 20 wk of age was significantly improved by both BMD and 0.10% Bio-Mos®. The addition of BMD significantly reduced the percentage of abdominal fat in the carcass. These results suggest that Bio-Mos® might be considered as a part of an overall feeding and management program to aid in overcoming potential loss of growth-promoting antibiotics.
  P. W. Waldroup , Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondon and C. A. Fritts
  A study was conducted to evaluate the response of broilers to diets containing a mannan oligosaccharide, antibiotics, or a combination of antibiotics and mannan oligosaccharide. All diets were supplemented with copper sulfate to provide 250 mg/kg Cu in diets fed to 42 d and 62.5 mg/kg Cu in diets from 42 to 56 d, in addition to the 10 mg/kg provided in the trace mineral mix. Bio-Mos®, a mannan oligosaccharide derived from the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was added at 1 g/kg in diets fed to 42 d and at 0.75 g/kg in diets fed 42 to 56 d. The antibiotic program consisted of 55 mg/kg of bacitracin methylene disalicylate to 42 d of age followed by 16.5 mg/kg virginiamycin to 56 d of age. When the Bio-Mos® and antibiotics were fed in combination, half the levels indicated above were fed. Twelve pens of 50 male broilers were fed each of the dietary treatments. Results of the study indicate that body weight of broilers was not significantly influenced by the antibiotic treatment, addition of Bio-Mos®, or the combination of antibiotics and Bio-Mos®. Feed conversion at 42 d was significantly improved by both the antibiotic treatment and by the addition of Bio-Mos®. At 56 d the feed conversion of birds fed the antibiotics or the combination of antibiotics and Bio-Mos® was improved compared to that of birds fed the negative control (P = 0.10). No significant effects on mortality, dressing percentage, or parts yield were observed. Possible interference of copper sulfate with the activity of the antibiotics and Bio-Mos® is discussed.
  P. W. Waldroup , C. A. Fritts and Fenglan Yan
 
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of combinations of antibiotics, mannan oligosaccharides, and organic forms of copper in the diet of broilers. Male broilers in litter floor pens were fed nutritionally complete diets with a 2 x 2 x 3 arrangement of treatments including two antibiotic programs (none; 55 mg/kg bacitracin methylene disalicylate from 0 to 42 d followed by 16.5 mg/kg virginiamycin to 63 d), two levels of mannan oligosaccharide (none; 1 g/kg Bio-Mos® from 0 to 42 d followed by 0.75 g/kg to 63 d) and three copper programs (none; copper sulfate to provide 250 mg/kg from 0 to 42 d followed by 62.5 mg/kg to 63 d; Bioplex® Cu to provide 55 mg/kg from 0 to 42 d followed by 27.5 mg/kg to 63 d). This resulted in a total of 12 experimental treatments, each fed to eight pens of 50 male chicks. Birds and feed were weighed at intervals during the study and samples of birds processed at 63 d to determine dressing percentage and parts yield. Body weight and feed conversion at 21 d was significantly improved by addition of the antibiotics but did not prove to be significantly improved at later ages. Addition of copper from either copper sulfate or Bioplex® Cu had no significant effect on any parameter tested. Addition of Bio-Mos® at the levels tested had no significant effect on any parameter but did interact with some of the other factors. Carcass characteristics were not improved by any of the factors tested. It is possible that the level of Bio-Mos® used in this study was not sufficient to elicit a positive response.
  F. Yan , C. A. Fritts , P. W. Waldroup , H. L. Stilborn , D. Rice , R. C. Crum , Jr. and V. Raboy
  Large White turkeys were fed diets containing either normal yellow dent corn (YDC) or a corn mutation containing low phytate phosphorus and high available phosphate corn (HAPC). Diets were considered nutritionally adequate in all respects with various degrees of reduction in available phosphorus content ( - 0.0, - 0.05, - 0.10 or - 0.15% of NRC (1994) recommendations for different feeding periods). These diets were fed with or without the addition of 1000 U/kg of phytase enzyme (Natuphos®, BASF), resulting in a total of 16 dietary treatments. Each treatment was assigned to three pens of 20 male turkeys from day-old to 20 wk of age. Body weight, feed consumption, and tibia ash were determined at 28 d intervals during the study. Male turkeys fed diets with HAPC did not differ significantly in BW or feed conversion (FC) from those fed diets with YDC, and had significantly higher tibia ash at 4, 8, and 12 wk of age. Addition of 1000 U/kg of phytase resulted in significantly higher BW at 4, 8, 12, and 16 wk of age as compared to unsupplemented controls with no significant differences in FC. The addition of phytase significantly improved tibia ash at every age. Dietary phosphorus content had no effect on BW or FC at any age. Reduction of phosphorus generally did not impair tibia ash until reduction of 0.15% below NRC (1994) recommendations. Addition of phytase aided in overcoming the reduction in phosphorus content. The combination of HAPC, addition of phytase, and reduction in dietary phosphorus content should aid in reducing phosphorus excretion without impairing performance.
  E. O. Oviedo-Rondon , C. A. Fritts and P. W. Waldroup
  The use of computerized mathematical growth models to estimate accurate and profitable dietary amino acid needs for broilers is a promising alternative to use of fixed requirements. Estimation of crude protein needs by the OmniPro® II growth model is higher than minimum CP levels known to support maximum broiler performance. In this experiment, male broilers were fed either a series of diets formulated using OmniPro® estimations for total amino acids and CP, or a series of diets formulated to provide from 90 to 105% of amino acids estimations made by OmniPro without a CP minimum. Results indicated that diets formulated based on OmniPro total amino acid estimations, with or without minimum crude protein constraints, supported the best live performance and carcass traits.
 
 
 
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