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Articles by C Zhu
Total Records ( 6 ) for C Zhu
  L Zhang , Z Hu , C Zhu , Q Liu , Y Zhou and Y. Zhang

Carboxylesterases (CEs) represent a multigene family of serine-dependent enzymes. Male-dependent CEs are over-expressed in the male reproductive tract of different animal species (bivalve mollusks, fruit-flies, and mammals). Here, a novel rat epididymis-specific gene named Ces7 was cloned and characterized. It was a novel member of CE family, which was mainly expressed and secreted to the lumens of the corpus and cauda epididymis. CES7 protein was highly glycosylated as other mammalian CEs. Furthermore, Ces7 increased with age growth until sex maturation and then maintained at high level. CES7 might be one of the major CEs in male reproductive tract and contribute to the sperm fertilization.

  H Wang , W Zhang , C Zhu , C Bucher , B. R Blazar , C Zhang , J. F Chen , J Linden , C Wu and Y. Huo

Background— Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial vessel wall. The A2A receptor (A2AR) plays a central role in many antiinflammatory effects of adenosine. However, the role of A2AR in atherosclerosis is not clear.

Methods and Results— The knockout of A2AR in apolipoprotein E–deficient (Apoe–/–/A2AR–/–) mice led to an increase in body weight and levels of blood cholesterol and proinflammatory cytokines, as well as the inflammation status of atherosclerotic lesions. Unexpectedly, Apoe–/–/A2AR–/– mice developed smaller lesions, as did chimeric Apoe–/– mice lacking A2AR in bone marrow–derived cells (BMDCs). The lesions of those mice exhibited a low density of foam cells and the homing ability of A2AR-deficient monocytes did not change. Increased foam cell apoptosis was detected in atherosclerotic lesions of Apoe–/–/A2AR–/– mice. In the absence of A2AR, macrophages incubated with oxidized LDL or in vivo–formed foam cells also exhibited increased apoptosis. A2AR deficiency in foam cells resulted in an increase in p38 mitogen–activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity. Inhibition of p38 phosphorylation abrogated the increased apoptosis of A2AR-deficient foam cells.

Conclusion— Inactivation of A2AR, especially in BMDCs, inhibits the formation of atherosclerotic leisons, suggesting that A2AR inactivation may be useful for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  H Wang , W Zhang , R Tang , R. P Hebbel , M. A Kowalska , C Zhang , J. D Marth , M Fukuda , C Zhu and Y. Huo

Objective— Core2 1 to 6-N-glucosaminyltransferase-I (C2GlcNAcT-I) plays an important role in optimizing the binding functions of several selectin ligands, including P-selectin glycoprotein ligand. We used apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient atherosclerotic mice to investigate the role of C2GlcNAcT-I in platelet and leukocyte interactions with injured arterial walls, in endothelial regeneration at injured sites, and in the formation of arterial neointima.

Methods and Results— Arterial neointima induced by wire injury was smaller in C2GlcNAcT-I-deficient apoE–/– mice than in control apoE–/– mice (a 79% reduction in size). Compared to controls, apoE–/– mice deficient in C2GlcNAcT-I also demonstrated less leukocyte adhesion on activated platelets in microflow chambers (a 75% reduction), and accumulation of leukocytes at injured areas of mouse carotid arteries was eliminated. Additionally, endothelial regeneration in injured lumenal areas was substantially faster in C2GlcNAcT-I-deficient apoE–/– mice than in control apoE–/– mice. Endothelial regeneration was associated with reduced accumulation of platelet factor 4 (PF4) at injured sites. PF4 deficiency accelerated endothelial regeneration and protected mice from neointima formation after arterial injury.

Conclusions— C2GlcNAcT-I deficiency suppresses injury-induced arterial neointima formation, and this effect is attributable to decreased leukocyte recruitment to injured vascular walls and increased endothelial regeneration. Both C2GlcNAcT-I and PF4 are promising targets for the treatment of arterial restenosis.

  H Kantarjian , J Cortes , D. W Kim , P Dorlhiac Llacer , R Pasquini , J DiPersio , M. C Muller , J. P Radich , H. J Khoury , N Khoroshko , M. B Bradley Garelik , C Zhu and M. S. Tallman

Dasatinib is the most potent BCR-ABL inhibitor, with 325-fold higher potency than imatinib against unmutated BCR-ABL in vitro. Studies have demonstrated the benefits of dasatinib 70 mg twice daily in patients with accelerated-phase chronic myeloid leukemia intolerant or resistant to imatinib. A phase 3 study compared the efficacy and safety of dasatinib 140 mg once daily with the current twice-daily regimen. Here, results from the subgroup with accelerated-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 317) with a median follow-up of 15 months (treatment duration, 0.03-31.15 months) are reported. Among patients randomized to once-daily (n = 158) or twice-daily (n = 159) treatment, rates of major hematologic and cytogenetic responses were comparable (major hematologic response, 66% vs 68%; major cytogenetic response, 39% vs 43%, respectively). Estimated progression-free survival rates at 24 months were 51% and 55%, whereas overall survival rates were 63% versus 72%. Once-daily treatment was associated with an improved safety profile. In particular, significantly fewer patients in the once-daily group experienced a pleural effusion (all grades, 20% vs 39% P < .001). These results demonstrate that dasatinib 140 mg once daily has similar efficacy to dasatinib 70 mg twice daily but with an improved safety profile. This trial is registered at as #CA180-035.

  L Huang , C Zhu , Y Sun , G Xie , G. G Mackenzie , G Qiao , D Komninou and B. Rigas

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as sulindac are promising chemoprevention agents against colon cancer, but their weak potency and side effects limit their use for both chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Here, we evaluated the effect of a new sulindac derivative, phospho-sulindac or OXT-922, on the growth of human cancer cell lines and its mechanism of action. OXT-922 inhibited the growth of human cancer cell lines originating from colon, pancreas and breast ~11- to 30-fold more potently than sulindac. This effect was mediated by a strong cytokinetic effect. Compared with control, OXT-922 inhibited cell proliferation by up to 67%, induced apoptosis 4.1-fold over control and blocked the G1 to S cell cycle phase transition. OXT-922 suppressed the levels of cell cycle regulating proteins, including cyclins D1 and D3 and Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4 and 6. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially those of mitochondrial $${\hbox{ O }}_{\hbox{ 2 }}^{\bullet -}$$, were markedly elevated (5.5-fold) in response to OXT-922. ROS collapsed the mitochondrial membrane potential and triggered apoptosis, which was largely abrogated by antioxidants. OXT-922 suppressed nuclear factor-kappaB activation and downregulated thioredoxin-1 expression. It also suppressed the production of prostaglandin E2 and decreased cyclooxygenase-1 expression. Similar to sulindac, OXT-922 enhanced spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity, reduced the cellular polyamine content and synergized with difluoromethylornithine to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Our results suggest that OXT-922 possesses promising anticancer properties and deserves further evaluation.

  Q Yang , S. P Chen , X. P Zhang , H Wang , C Zhu and H. Y. Lin

Successful embryo implantation depends on the ability of the trophoblast cells to invade the endometrium and the receptivity of the endometrium. Unlike tumor invasion, trophoblast invasion is spatio-temporaly restricted. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a key inhibitory factor in the invasion of early trophoblast cells. Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2), a HECT type E3 ubiquitin ligase, is an important regulator of the TGF-β signaling pathway, targeting TGF-β receptors and various Smads for proteasome-mediated degradation. In this context, we wished to determine whether Smurf2 has a physiological role during embryo implantation, especially in trophoblast invasion. We examined the spatio-temporal expression of Smurf2 in human placental villi and the function of Smurf2 in trophoblast cell migration and invasion in a model system involving a human extravillous trophoblast cell line, HTR-8/SVneo. Results from RT-PCR and immunohistochemical studies showed that expression of Smurf2 in placental villi was the highest during the first trimester and decreased as the pregnancy progressed. Overexpression of Smurf2 in HTR-8/SVneo cells reduced TGF-β type I receptor levels, and enhanced cell migration and invasion. Conversely, RNA interference–mediated downregulation of Smurf2 resulted in a significant increase in TGF-β type I receptor protein levels. However, the levels of Smad2, another potential target of Smurf2, remained unchanged. In conclusion, the present study suggests that Smurf2 promotes trophoblast cell migration and invasion, and this function may involve downregulation of TGF-β type I receptor. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:605–612, 2009)

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