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Articles by C Kim
Total Records ( 4 ) for C Kim
  D. W Kim , K. R Han , C Kim and Y. J. Chae

BACKGROUND: Transforaminal epidural injection (TEI) is commonly used in the treatment of radicular pain. However, there have been many published cases of serious complications after a TEI, occurring most often in cervical levels. One of the presumptive reasons for this complication is inadvertent intravascular injection. We sought to identify the incidence of intravascular injections in cervical and lumbar spinal segments during TEI.

METHODS: All patients with radicular symptoms or herpes zoster-associated pain underwent cervical and lumbar TEIs (LTEIs) prospectively by one of the authors. After an ideal needle position was confirmed by biplanar fluoroscopy, 3 mL of a mixture containing nonionic contrast and normal saline was continuously injected at the rate of 0.3–0.5 mL/s with real-time fluoroscopic visualization.

RESULTS: One hundred eighty-two TEIs were performed. Fifty-six cases (30.8%) showed intravascular spreading patterns, 45 cases occurring during a cervical TEI (CTEI) and 11 during a LTEI. The incidences of simultaneous perineural and vascular injection in cervical and LTEIs were 52.1% and 9%, respectively, and pure vascular flow pattern rates in cervical and LTEIs were 11.3% and 0.9%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The incidence of vascular injection in CTEIs is significantly higher than in LTEIs, suggesting that CTEIs should be performed more cautiously. Furthermore, the vascular injection rate of CTEIs is much higher than that previously reported. This finding suggests the need for a proper volume of contrast injection (3 mL) to detect vascular flow, especially in simultaneous perineural and vascular injections.

  S. M Ahn , T. H Kim , S Lee , D Kim , H Ghang , D. S Kim , B. C Kim , S. Y Kim , W. Y Kim , C Kim , D Park , Y. S Lee , S Kim , R Reja , S Jho , C. G Kim , J. Y Cha , K. H Kim , B Lee , J Bhak and S. J. Kim

We present the first Korean individual genome sequence (SJK) and analysis results. The diploid genome of a Korean male was sequenced to 28.95-fold redundancy using the Illumina paired-end sequencing method. SJK covered 99.9% of the NCBI human reference genome. We identified 420,083 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are not in the dbSNP database. Despite a close similarity, significant differences were observed between the Chinese genome (YH), the only other Asian genome available, and SJK: (1) 39.87% (1,371,239 out of 3,439,107) SNPs were SJK-specific (49.51% against Venter's, 46.94% against Watson's, and 44.17% against the Yoruba genomes); (2) 99.5% (22,495 out of 22,605) of short indels (< 4 bp) discovered on the same loci had the same size and type as YH; and (3) 11.3% (331 out of 2920) deletion structural variants were SJK-specific. Even after attempting to map unmapped reads of SJK to unanchored NCBI scaffolds, HGSV, and available personal genomes, there were still 5.77% SJK reads that could not be mapped. All these findings indicate that the overall genetic differences among individuals from closely related ethnic groups may be significant. Hence, constructing reference genomes for minor socio-ethnic groups will be useful for massive individual genome sequencing.

  M Gerschenson , C Kim , B Berzins , B Taiwo , D. E Libutti , J Choi , D Chen , J Weinstein , J Shore , B da Silva , E Belsey , G. A McComsey and R. L. Murphy

HIV-associated lipoatrophy has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction induced by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy. We hypothesize that lipid profiles and markers of mitochondrial function will improve in HIV-lipoatrophic patients switched to the nucleotide analogue tenofovir.


Ten patients receiving stavudine, lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra®) for over 6 years were switched from stavudine to tenofovir for 48 weeks. Subcutaneous fat tissue biopsies, fasting metabolic tests, HIV RNA, CD4 cell count and whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were obtained at study entry and week 48. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copies/cell and mitochondrial morphology were assessed in adipose tissue biopsies, mtDNA 8-oxo-deoxyguanine in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and glutathione (GSH) and F2-isoprostane in plasma.


There was no change in limb fat mass by DEXA; however, trunk fat mass increased by 18.9% (P = 0.01). Fasting total cholesterol decreased by 33 mg/dL (P = 0.005) and serum glucose decreased by 4 mg/dL (P = 0.039). mtDNA copies/cell increased from 386 to 1537 (P < 0.001). Transmission electron microscopy showed that mitochondrial cristae were lacking or poorly defined at study entry, whereas mitochondrial inner structures were more well defined and outer membranes were intact at 48 weeks. Oxidative damage decreased in 8/10 patients, GSH increased and F2-isoprostane decreased.


The results from this study demonstrate that systemic and peripheral fat mitochondria improve in patients switched to tenofovir following long-term exposure to stavudine, while continuing protease inhibitor therapy.

  D Park , H Yang , J Jeong , K Ha , S Choi , C Kim , C Yoon and D. Paek

This paper presents a summary of arsenic level statistics from air and wipe samples taken from studies conducted in fabrication operations. The main objectives of this study were not only to describe arsenic measurement data but also, through a literature review, to categorize fabrication workers in accordance with observed arsenic levels. All airborne arsenic measurements reported were included in the summary statistics for analysis of the measurement data. The arithmetic mean was estimated assuming a lognormal distribution from the geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation or the range. In addition, weighted arithmetic means (WAMs) were calculated based on the number of measurements reported for each mean. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to compare arsenic levels classified according to several categories such as the year, sampling type, location sampled, operation type, and cleaning technique. Nine papers were found reporting airborne arsenic measurement data from maintenance workers or maintenance areas in semiconductor chip-making plants. A total of 40 statistical summaries from seven articles were identified that represented a total of 423 airborne arsenic measurements. Arsenic exposure levels taken during normal operating activities in implantation operations (WAM = 1.6 µg m–3, no. of samples = 77, no. of statistical summaries = 2) were found to be lower than exposure levels of engineers who were involved in maintenance works (7.7 µg m–3, no. of samples = 181, no. of statistical summaries = 19). The highest level (WAM = 218.6 µg m–3) was associated with various maintenance works performed inside an ion implantation chamber. ANOVA revealed no significant differences in the WAM arsenic levels among the categorizations based on operation and sampling characteristics. Arsenic levels (56.4 µg m–3) recorded during maintenance works performed in dry conditions were found to be much higher than those from maintenance works in wet conditions (0.6 µg m–3). Arsenic levels from wipe samples in process areas after maintenance activities ranged from non-detectable to 146 µg cm–2, indicating the potential for dispersion into the air and hence inhalation. We conclude that workers who are regularly or occasionally involved in maintenance work have higher potential for occupational exposure than other employees who are in charge of routine production work. In addition, fabrication workers can be classified into two groups based on the reviewed arsenic exposure levels: operators with potential for low levels of exposure and maintenance engineers with high levels of exposure. These classifications could be used as a basis for a qualitative ordinal ranking of exposure in an epidemiological study.

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