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Articles by C Higbee
Total Records ( 4 ) for C Higbee
  A Hyland , C Higbee , M. J Travers , A Van Deusen , M Bansal Travers , B King and K. M. Cummings
  Introduction

The present study reports on the prevalence of smoke-free homes, the characteristics of participants who adopted a smoke-free home policy, and the association between smoke-free homes and subsequent predictors of smoking cessation.

Methods

Data are reported on 4,963 individuals who originally participated in the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation between 1988 and 1993 and completed follow-up surveys in 2001 and 2005. The relationship between home smoking policy and smoking behavior was examined with a multivariate regression model.

Results

Among those who were smokers at the 2001 follow-up, the percentage reporting that no smoking was allowed in their home increased from 29% in 2001 to 38% in 2005. Smokers most likely to adopt smoke-free home policies between 2001 and 2005 were males, former smokers, and those who had lower levels of daily cigarette consumption (among those who continued to smoke), those with higher annual household incomes, and those with no other smokers in the household. Some 28% of smokers with smoke-free homes in 2001 reported that they had quit smoking by 2005 compared with 16% of those who allowed smoking in their homes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4–2.2), and baseline quitters with smoke-free homes also were less likely to relapse (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4–0.8).

Discussion

Smoke-free homes are becoming more prevalent, and they are a powerful tool not only to help smokers stop smoking but also to help keep those who quit from relapsing back to smoking.

  S. A McKee , C Higbee , S O`Malley , L Hassan , R Borland , K. M Cummings , G Hastings , G. T Fong and A. Hyland
  Introduction

On 26 March 2006, Scotland implemented a smoke-free policy prohibiting smoking in indoor public venues, including bars and pubs. Drinking and smoking are highly associated behaviors, so we evaluated whether the regulations would decrease drinking behavior among smokers in public venues. We further assessed whether this effect would be more pronounced in heavier drinkers and whether decreases in drinking behavior in pubs would be offset by increased drinking in the home.

Methods

Participants (N = 1,059) were adult smokers and nonsmokers from Scotland and from the rest of the United Kingdom, which did not have comprehensive smoke-free policies during the study period. Data were collected using a random-digit–dialed telephone survey from February to March 2006, just prior to the policy implementation in Scotland. Follow-up surveys were conducted in March 2007. Using baseline data, we categorized participants as abstainers, moderate drinkers, or heavy drinkers.

Results

Overall, results demonstrated that drinking behavior did not change significantly in Scotland compared with the rest of the United Kingdom following implementation of the smoke-free policy in Scotland. However, planned comparisons examining mean changes in drinks consumed in pubs or bars following the legislation demonstrated that the smoke-free legislation was associated with reduced drinking behavior in pubs and bars among moderate- and heavy-drinking smokers in Scotland. These moderate- and heavy-drinking Scottish smokers also reduced their pub attendance following policy implementation.

Discussion

The smoke-free Scottish law did not increase drinking in the home. These findings suggest that smoke-free policies may have additional public health benefits for those at greater risk for alcohol-related health problems.

  A Van Deusen , A Hyland , M. J Travers , C Wang , C Higbee , B. A King , T Alford and K. M. Cummings
 

With the increasing normative trend of clean indoor air laws prohibiting smoking in public places such as worksites and restaurants, the home is becoming the primary source of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. However, little empirical data indicate how SHS is distributed throughout homes and whether smoking in segregated areas offers protection. This project studied real-time data on levels of SHS in 9 homes in which smoking was permitted and in 3 smoke-free homes. Active sampling monitors were used to assess levels of PM2.5, a marker for SHS, over a 3-day period. In smoking homes, one monitor was placed in the primary smoking area and another in a distal location, where smoking generally did not occur. Participants logged smoking and other activities that could affect air quality. In smoking homes, without assuming normality, the mean PM2.5 level for the primary smoking areas was statistically significantly higher than that for distal areas (84 and 63 µg/m3, respectively). Both levels far surpassed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's annual standard of 15 µg/m3 for outdoor air quality. By contrast, the smoke-free home mean was 9 µg/m3, similar to outdoor air quality. These results suggest that the air in smoking homes was several times more polluted than that in smoke-free homes, regardless of where the measurements were taken, meaning that efforts to confine smoking to only part of the home offer no protection for people anywhere inside the home. Household members can be protected by implementing a smoke-free home policy.

  A Hyland , C Higbee , R Borland , M Travers , G Hastings , G. T Fong and K. M. Cummings
  Introduction

This paper describes the varying levels of smoking policies in nationally representative samples of smokers in four countries and examines how these policies are associated with changes in attitudes and beliefs about secondhand smoke over time.

Methods

We report data on 5,788 respondents to Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey who were employed at the time of the survey. A cohort of these respondents was followed up with two additional survey waves approximately 12 months apart. Respondents’ attitudes and beliefs about secondhand smoke as well as self-reported policies in their workplace and in bars and restaurants in their community were assessed at all waves.

Results

The level of comprehensive smoke-free policies in workplaces, restaurants, and bars increased over the study period for all countries combined and was highest in Canada (30%) and lowest in the United Kingdom (0%) in 2004. In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, stronger secondhand smoke policies were associated with more favorable attitudes and support for comprehensive regulations. The associations were the strongest for smokers who reported comprehensive policies in restaurants, bars, and their workplace for all three survey waves.

Discussion

Comprehensive smoke-free policies are increasing over time, and stronger policies and the public education opportunities surrounding their passage are associated with more favorable attitudes toward secondhand smoke regulations. The implication for policy makers is that, although the initial debate over smoke-free policies may be tumultuous, once people understand the rationale for implementing smoke-free policies and experience their benefits, public support increases even among smokers, and compliance with smoke-free regulations increases over time.

 
 
 
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