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Articles by C Harris
Total Records ( 2 ) for C Harris
  A. H Harrill , P. B Watkins , S Su , P. K Ross , D. E Harbourt , I. M Stylianou , G. A Boorman , M. W Russo , R. S Sackler , S. C Harris , P. C Smith , R Tennant , M Bogue , K Paigen , C Harris , T Contractor , T Wiltshire , I Rusyn and D. W. Threadgill

Interindividual variability in response to chemicals and drugs is a common regulatory concern. It is assumed that xenobiotic-induced adverse reactions have a strong genetic basis, but many mechanism-based investigations have not been successful in identifying susceptible individuals. While recent advances in pharmacogenetics of adverse drug reactions show promise, the small size of the populations susceptible to important adverse events limits the utility of whole-genome association studies conducted entirely in humans. We present a strategy to identify genetic polymorphisms that may underlie susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. First, in a cohort of healthy adults who received the maximum recommended dose of acetaminophen (4 g/d x 7 d), we confirm that about one third of subjects develop elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase, indicative of liver injury. To identify the genetic basis for this susceptibility, a panel of 36 inbred mouse strains was used to model genetic diversity. Mice were treated with 300 mg/kg or a range of additional acetaminophen doses, and the extent of liver injury was quantified. We then employed whole-genome association analysis and targeted sequencing to determine that polymorphisms in Ly86, Cd44, Cd59a, and Capn8 correlate strongly with liver injury and demonstrated that dose-curves vary with background. Finally, we demonstrated that variation in the orthologous human gene, CD44, is associated with susceptibility to acetaminophen in two independent cohorts. Our results indicate a role for CD44 in modulation of susceptibility to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. These studies demonstrate that a diverse mouse population can be used to understand and predict adverse toxicity in heterogeneous human populations through guided resequencing.

  T. J Smyth , J. R Fishwick , L AL Moosawi , D. G Cummings , C Harris , V Kitidis , A Rees , V Martinez Vicente and E. M. S. Woodward

The marine laboratories in Plymouth have sampled at two principle sites in the Western English Channel for over a century in open-shelf (station E1; 50° 02'N, 4° 22'W) and coastal (station L4; 50° 15'N, 4° 13'W) waters. These stations are seasonally stratified from late-April until September, and the variable biological response is regulated by subtle variations in temperature, light, nutrients and meteorology. Station L4 is characterized by summer nutrient depletion, although intense summer precipitation, increasing riverine input to the system, results in pulses of increased nitrate concentration and surface freshening. The winter nutrient concentrations at E1 are consistent with an open-shelf site. Both stations have a spring and autumn phytoplankton bloom; at station E1, the autumn bloom tends to dominate in terms of chlorophyll concentration. The last two decades have seen a warming of around 0.6°C per decade, and this is superimposed on several periods of warming and cooling over the past century. In general, over the Western English Channel domain, the end of the 20th century was around 0.5°C warmer than the first half of the century. The warming magnitude and trend is consistent with other stations across the north-west European Shelf and occurred during a period of reduced wind stress and increased levels of insolation (+20%); these are both correlated with the larger scale climatic forcing of the North Atlantic Oscillation.

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