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Articles by C Dyer
Total Records ( 3 ) for C Dyer
  S Gabardi , S. S Waikar , S Martin , K Roberts , J Chen , L Borgi , H Sheashaa , C Dyer , S. K Malek , S. G Tullius , N Vadivel , M Grafals , R Abdi , N Najafian , E Milford and A. Chandraker

Background and objectives: Nearly 30% of renal transplant recipients develops BK viremia, a prerequisite for BK nephropathy. Case reports have evaluated treatment options for BK virus, but no controlled studies have assessed prophylactic therapies. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics were studied for prevention of BK viremia after renal transplantation.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This retrospective analysis evaluated adult renal transplant recipients with at least one BK viral load (blood) between 90 and 400 days after transplantation. Six to 12 months of co-trimoxazole was used for Pneumocystis prophylaxis. In sulfa-allergic/-intolerant patients, 6 to 12 months of atovaquone with 1 month of a fluoroquinolone was used. Fluoroquinolones can inhibit BK DNA topoisomerase. The two groups studied were those that received 30 days of levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin after transplantation and those that did not. The primary endpoint was BK viremia rates at 1 year. Of note, of the 160 patients not receiving fluoroquinolone prophylaxis, 40 received a fluoroquinolone for treatment of a bacterial infection within 3 months after transplantation. Subgroup analysis evaluating these 40 patients against the 120 who had no exposure to fluoroquinolones was completed.

Results: A 1-month fluoroquinolone course after transplantation was associated with significantly lower rates of BK viremia at 1 year compared with those with no fluoroquinolone. In the subgroup analysis, exposure to fluoroquinolone for treatment of bacterial infections within 3 months after transplantation was associated with significantly lower 1-year rates of BK viremia.

Conclusions: This analysis demonstrates that fluoroquinolones are effective at preventing BK viremia after renal transplantation.

  P Beck , C Dyer , N Fuller , A Hands , M Latocha , S Rollet and F. Spurny

Radiation exposure of aircraft crew caused by cosmic radiation is regulated in Europe by the European Community Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM and implemented into law in almost every country of the European Union. While the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) leads on average to an exposure of about 3 mSv per year, solar cosmic radiation can lead to 1 mSv per one subsonic flight during solar storm periods. Compared to GCR, solar cosmic radiation shows a much softer proton spectrum but with a larger contribution of several orders of magnitude. This is the reason for the large radiation exposure in high northern and southern geographic latitudes during solar particle events. Here an overview of active radiation in-flight measurements undertaken during solar storms is given. In particular, tissue-equivalent proportional counter on-board measurements are shown and the radiation quality during solar storm periods with that for GCR is compared.

  J. F Bottollier Depois , P Beck , B Bennett , L Bennett , R Butikofer , I Clairand , L Desorgher , C Dyer , E Felsberger , E Fluckiger , A Hands , P Kindl , M Latocha , B Lewis , G Leuthold , T Maczka , V Mares , M. J McCall , K O'Brien , S Rollet , W Ruhm and F. Wissmann

The assessment of the exposure to cosmic radiation onboard aircraft is one of the preoccupations of bodies responsible for radiation protection. Cosmic particle flux is significantly higher onboard aircraft than at ground level and its intensity depends on the solar activity. The dose is usually estimated using codes validated by the experimental data. In this paper, a comparison of various codes is presented, some of them are used routinely, to assess the dose received by the aircraft crew caused by the galactic cosmic radiation. Results are provided for periods close to solar maximum and minimum and for selected flights covering major commercial routes in the world. The overall agreement between the codes, particularly for those routinely used for aircraft crew dosimetry, was better than ±20 % from the median in all but two cases. The agreement within the codes is considered to be fully satisfactory for radiation protection purposes.

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