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Articles by C Daniel
Total Records ( 2 ) for C Daniel
  H Wahlstedt , C Daniel , M Enstero and M. Ohman
 

RNA editing by adenosine deamination has been shown to generate multiple isoforms of several neural receptors, often with profound effects on receptor function. However, little is known about the regulation of editing activity during development. We have developed a large-scale RNA sequencing protocol to determine adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing frequencies in the coding region of genes in the mammalian brain. Using the 454 Life Sciences (Roche) Amplicon Sequencing technology, we were able to determine even low levels of editing with high accuracy. The efficiency of editing for 28 different sites was analyzed during the development of the mouse brain from embryogenesis to adulthood. We show that, with few exceptions, the editing efficiency is low during embryogenesis, increasing gradually at different rates up to the adult mouse. The variation in editing gave receptors like HTR2C and GABAA (gamma-aminobutyric acid type A) a different set of protein isoforms during development from those in the adult animal. Furthermore, we show that this regulation of editing activity cannot be explained by an altered expression of the ADAR proteins but, rather, by the presence of a regulatory network that controls the editing activity during development.

  J Nolting , C Daniel , S Reuter , C Stuelten , P Li , H Sucov , B. G Kim , J. J Letterio , K Kretschmer , H. J Kim and H. von Boehmer
 

It has been reported that retinoic acid (RA) enhances regulatory T (T reg) cell conversion by inhibiting the secretion of cytokines that interfere with conversion. This report shows that these conclusions provide a partial explanation at best. First, RA not only interfered with cytokine secretion but also with the ability of these cytokines to inhibit T reg cell conversion of naive T cells. Furthermore, RA enhanced conversion even in the absence of inhibitory cytokines. The latter effect depended on the RA receptor (RAR) but did not require Smad3, despite the fact that RA enhanced Smad3 expression. The RAR1 isoform was not essential for RA-dependent enhancement of transforming growth factor β–driven conversion, suggesting that conversion can also be mediated by RAR2. Interleukin (IL)-6 strongly reduced RAR expression levels such that a deficiency of the predominant RAR1 isoform leaves too little RAR2 for RA to inhibit the generation of Th17 cells in the presence of IL-6.

 
 
 
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