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Articles by C Chen
Total Records ( 14 ) for C Chen
  S Dong , D Liang , N An , L Jia , Y Shan , C Chen , K Sun , F Niu , H Li and S. Fu
 

The aim of the present study is to investigate gene expression involved in the signal pathway of MAPK and death signal receptor pathway of FAS in lead-induced apoptosis of testicular germ cells. First, cell viabilities were determined by MTT assay. Second, using single cell gel-electrophoresis test (comet assay) and TUNEL staining technique, apoptotic rate and cell apoptosis localization of testicular germ cells were measured in mice treated with 0.15%, 0.3%, and 0.6% lead, respectively. Third, the immunolocalization of K-ras, c-fos, Fas, and active caspase-3 proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry. Finally, changes in the translational levels of K-ras, c-fos, Fas, and active caspase-3 were further detected by western blot analysis. Our results showed that lead could significantly induce testicular germ cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). The mechanisms were closely related to the increased expressions of K-ras, c-fos, Fas, and active caspase-3 in apoptotic germ cells. In conclusion, K-ras/c-fos and Fas/caspase-3 death signaling receptor pathways were involved in the lead-induced apoptosis of the testicular germ cells in mice.

  E Durand , C Chen and O. Francois
 
  T Annecke , D Chappell , C Chen , M Jacob , U Welsch , C. P Sommerhoff , M Rehm , P. F Conzen and B. F. Becker
  Background

Healthy vascular endothelium is coated by the glycocalyx, important in multiple endothelial functions, but destroyed by ischaemia–reperfusion. The impact of volatile anaesthetics on this fragile structure has not been investigated. We evaluated the effect of cardiac pre- and post-conditioning with sevoflurane on integrity of the endothelial glycocalyx in conjunction with coronary vascular function.

Methods

Isolated guinea pig hearts perfused with Krebs–Henseleit buffer underwent 20 min stopped-flow ischaemia (37°C), either without or with 1 MAC sevoflurane. This was applied for 15 min before, for 20 min after, or both before and after ischaemia. Transudate was collected for assessing coronary net fluid extravasation and histamine release by mast cells. Coronary release of syndecan-1 and heparan sulphate was measured. In additional experiments with and without continuous sevoflurane, cathepsin B and tryptase β-like protease activity were measured in effluent. Hearts were perfusion-fixed to visualize the endothelial glycocalyx.

Results

Ischaemia led to a significant (P<0.05) increase by 70% in transudate formation during reperfusion only in hearts without sevoflurane. This was accompanied by significant (P<0.05) increases in heparan sulphate (four-fold) and syndecan release (6.5-fold), with electron microscopy revealing massive degradation of glycocalyx. After ischaemia, histamine was released into transudate, and cathepsin B activity increased in effluent (P<0.05). Sevoflurane application attenuated all these changes, except for histamine release.

Conclusions

Sevoflurane protects the endothelial glycocalyx from ischaemia–reperfusion-induced degradation, with both preconditioning and rapid post-conditioning being successful. The mechanism seems to involve attenuation of lysosomal cathepsin B release and to be independent from tissue mast cell degranulation.

  L. E Rhodes , B. K Freeman , S Auh , A. D Kokkinis , A La Pean , C Chen , T. J Lehky , J. A Shrader , E. W Levy , M Harris Love , N. A Di Prospero and K. H. Fischbeck
 

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is an X-linked motor neuron disease caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the androgen receptor gene. To characterize the natural history and define outcome measures for clinical trials, we assessed the clinical history, laboratory findings and muscle strength and function in 57 patients with genetically confirmed disease. We also administered self-assessment questionnaires for activities of daily living, quality of life and erectile function. We found an average delay of over 5 years from onset of weakness to diagnosis. Muscle strength and function correlated directly with serum testosterone levels and inversely with CAG repeat length, age and duration of weakness. Motor unit number estimation was decreased by about half compared to healthy controls. Sensory nerve action potentials were reduced in nearly all subjects. Quantitative muscle assessment and timed 2 min walk may be useful as meaningful indicators of disease status. The direct correlation of testosterone levels with muscle strength indicates that androgens may have a positive effect on muscle function in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy patients, in addition to the toxic effects described in animal models.

  T Holopainen , H Huang , C Chen , K. E Kim , L Zhang , F Zhou , W Han , C Li , J Yu , J Wu , G. Y Koh , K Alitalo and Y. He
 

The angiopoietin-1 (Ang1)/Tie2 signaling pathway is known to play an important role in the regulation of vascular maturation and maintenance of vessel integrity. In this study, we have investigated the effect of systemic Tie2 activation or inhibition on tumor growth and metastasis. We found that treatment with Ang1 delivered via an adenoviral vector promoted s.c. implanted tumor metastasis to the lungs. Ang1 treatment did not significantly increase vascular density in the tumors but induced enlargement of blood vessels in both the tumor and normal tissues, which increased tumor cell dissemination into the blood circulation. Ang1 also enhanced the formation of metastatic foci in the lungs when tumor cells were injected into the circulation via the tail vein. The effect of Ang1 on metastasis was validated by a simultaneous treatment with a soluble form of Tie2 (sTie2), which led to the suppression of Ang1-induced increase of tumor metastasis. Furthermore, using a highly metastatic tumor model, we confirmed that systemic treatment with sTie2 suppressed tumor metastasis to the lungs and lymph nodes, whereas tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis were not significantly affected. This suggests that the Ang1/Tie2 signals contribute to tumor progression by increasing vascular entry and exit of tumor cells to facilitate tumor dissemination and establishment of metastases. [Cancer Res 2009;69(11):4656–64]

  Z Han , Z Hong , C Chen , Q Gao , D Luo , Y Fang , Y Cao , T Zhu , X Jiang , Q Ma , W Li , L Han , D Wang , G Xu , S Wang , L Meng , J Zhou and D. Ma
 

Tumor cells acquire the ability to proliferate uncontrollably, resist apoptosis, sustain angiogenesis and evade immune surveillance. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 regulates all of these processes in a surprisingly large number of human cancers. Consequently, the STAT3 protein is emerging as an ideal target for cancer therapy. This paper reports the generation of an oncolytic adenovirus (M4), which selectively blocks STAT3 signaling in tumor cells as a novel therapeutic strategy. M4 selectively replicated in tumor cells and expressed high levels of antisense STAT3 complementary DNA during the late phase of the viral infection in a replication-dependent manner. The viral progeny yield of M4 in tumor cells was much higher than that of the parent adenoviral mutants, Ad5/dE1A. M4 effectively silenced STAT3 and its target genes in tumor cells while sparing normal cells and exhibited potent antitumoral efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Systemic administration of M4 significantly inhibited tumor growth in an orthotopic gastric carcinoma mouse model, eliminated abdominal cavity metastases and prolonged survival time. In summary, M4 has low toxicity and great potential as a therapeutic agent for different types of cancers.

  L Cheng , Y Chen , C Chen , J Ma , L Shu , A. V Vasilakos and N. Xiong
 

Considering sensor nodes deployed densely and uniformly a mobile sink moving through the sensing field queries a specific area of interest for monitoring information. The Query packet, injected by the mobile sink, is routed to the specific area and the corresponding Response packet is expected to return via multi-hop communication. In this paper, we analyze such a network model to address the problem of efficient data collection for mobile wireless monitoring applications. We first propose a meeting position-aware routing (MPAR) protocol for routing the Response packet efficiently and then propose an efficient query-based data collection scheme (QBDCS) for mobile wireless monitoring applications based on the MPAR. In order to minimize the energy consumption and packet delivery latency, the QBDCS chooses the optimal query time of injecting the Query packet and tailors the routing mechanism for sensor nodes forwarding packets. Simulation study has verified the analysis and demonstrated that the QBDCS can significantly reduce the energy consumption and end to end delivery latency.

  A. D Haase , S Fenoglio , F Muerdter , P. M Guzzardo , B Czech , D. J Pappin , C Chen , A Gordon and G. J. Hannon
 

Combining RNAi in cultured cells and analysis of mutant animals, we probed the roles of known Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway components in the initiation and effector phases of transposon silencing. Squash associated physically with Piwi, and reductions in its expression led to modest transposon derepression without effects on piRNAs, consistent with an effector role. Alterations in Zucchini or Armitage reduced both Piwi protein and piRNAs, indicating functions in the formation of a stable Piwi RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex). Notably, loss of Zucchini or mutations within its catalytic domain led to accumulation of unprocessed precursor transcripts from flamenco, consistent with a role for this putative nuclease in piRNA biogenesis.

  J Zheng , G Wang , G. Y Yang , D Wang , X Luo , C Chen , Z Zhang , Q Li , W Xu , Z Li and D. Wang
  Objective

This Phase II study was conducted to evaluate the activity and feasibility of a regimen of nedaplatin and 5-fluorouracil as induction chemotherapy, followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy concurrent with chemotherapy in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Methods

Patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy comprised two cycles of 5-fluorouracil at 700 mg/m2/day administered on days 1–4 as continuous intravenous infusion and nedaplatin (100 mg/m2 administered i.v. over 2 h) given after the administration of 5-fluorouracil on day 1, repeated every 3 weeks, followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy concurrent with nedaplatin. During intensity-modulated radiotherapy, nedaplatin was administered at a dose of 100 mg/m2 intravenous infusion on days 1, 22 and 43, given ~60 min before radiation.

Results

Fifty-nine (95.8%) of the 60 patients were assessable for response. Thirty-eight cases of complete response and 14 cases of partial response were confirmed after completion of chemoradiation, with the objective response rate of 86.7% (95% CI, 78.1–95.3%). The median follow-up period was 48 months (range, 30–62 months). The 3-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 75.0% (95% CI, 63.0–87.0%) and 85.5% (95% CI, 75.9–95.1%). No patient showed Grade 3 or higher renal dysfunction. The most commonly observed late effect was xerostomia, but the severity diminished over time, and the detectable xerostomia at 24 months was 10.2%. There were no treatment-related deaths during this study.

Conclusions

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with nedaplatin and 5-fluorouracil followed by concomitant nedaplatin and intensity-modulated radiotherapy is an effective and safe treatment for Southern China patients affected by locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  Y Li , S Huang , X Wang , D Zhou , K Huang , H Guo , J Fang , C Chen and Q. Liu
 

We report on 2 children with Burkitt's lymphoma accompanied by extensive extranodal involvement treated with chemotherapy and Rituximab in combination with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (Auto-PBSCT) regimens. No obvious side effects could be seen during the Rituximab therapy. Both children achieved complete remission with no relapse after being followed up for 4.3 and 4 years, respectively. Our limited experience show that Rituximab in combination with chemotherapy and Auto-PBSCT might have better therapeutic effects on Burkitt's lymphoma of children and the side effects of Rituximab therapy is minimal and can be well tolerated.

  C Chen , J Wickenheisser , K. G Ewens , W Ankener , R. S Legro , A Dunaif , J. M McAllister , R. S Spielman and J. F. Strauss
 

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by excessive theca cell androgen secretion, dependent upon LH, which acts through the intermediacy of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). cAMP signaling pathways are controlled through regulation of its synthesis by adenylyl cyclases, and cAMP degradation by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). PDE8A, a high-affinity cAMP-specific PDE is expressed in the ovary and testis. Leydig cells from mice with a targeted mutation in the Pde8a gene are sensitized to the action of LH in terms of testosterone production. These observations led us to evaluate the human PDE8A gene as a PCOS candidate gene, and the hypothesis that reduced PDE8A activity or expression would contribute to excessive ovarian androgen production. We identified a rare variant (R136Q; NM_002605.2 c.407G > A) and studied another known single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs62019510, N401S) in the PDE8A coding sequence causing non-synonymous amino acid substitutions, and a new SNP in the promoter region (NT_010274.16:g.490155G > A). Although PDE8A kinetics were consistent with reduced activity in theca cell lysates, study of the expressed variants did not confirm reduced activity in cell-free assays. Sub-cellular localization of the enzyme was also not different among the coding sequence variants. The PDE8A promoter SNP and a previously described promoter SNP did not affect promoter activity in in vitro assays. The more common coding sequence SNP (N401S), and the promoter SNPs were not associated with PCOS in our transmission/disequilibrium test-based analysis, nor where they associated with total testosterone or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels. These findings exclude a significant role for PDE8A as a PCOS candidate gene, and as a Las major determinant of androgen levels in women.

  M Jiang , Y Ma , C Chen , X Fu , S Yang , X Li , G Yu , Y Mao , Y Xie and Y. Li
 

Androgen signaling plays an important role in many biological processes. Androgen Responsive Gene Database (ARGDB) is devoted to providing integrated knowledge on androgen-controlled genes. Gene records were collected on the basis of PubMed literature collections. More than 6000 abstracts and 950 original publications were manually screened, leading to 1785 human genes, 993 mouse genes, and 583 rat genes finally included in the database. All the collected genes were experimentally proved to be regulated by androgen at the expression level or to contain androgen-responsive regions. For each gene important details of the androgen regulation experiments were collected from references, such as expression change, androgen-responsive sequence, response time, tissue/cell type, experimental method, ligand identity, and androgen amount, which will facilitate further evaluation by researchers. Furthermore, the database was integrated with multiple annotation resources, including National Center for Biotechnology Information, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway, to reveal the biological characteristics and significance of androgen-regulated genes. The ARGDB web site is mainly composed of the Browse, Search, Element Scan, and Submission modules. It is user friendly and freely accessible at http://argdb.fudan.edu.cn. Preliminary analysis of the collected data was performed. Many disease pathways, such as prostate carcinogenesis, were found to be enriched in androgen-regulated genes. The discovered androgen-response motifs were similar to those in previous reports. The analysis results are displayed in the web site. In conclusion, ARGDB provides a unified gateway to storage, retrieval, and update of information on androgen-regulated genes.

 
 
 
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