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Articles by C Baker
Total Records ( 6 ) for C Baker
  H Basciano , A. E Miller , M Naples , C Baker , R Kohen , E Xu , Q Su , E. M Allister , M. B Wheeler and K. Adeli

Although the atherogenic role of dietary cholesterol has been well established, its diabetogenic potential and associated metabolic disturbances have not been reported. Diet-induced hamster models of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia were employed to determine lipogenic and diabetogenic effects of dietary cholesterol. Metabolic studies were conducted in hamsters fed diets rich in fructose (40%), fat (30%), and cholesterol (0.05–0.25%) (FFC) and other test diets. Short-term feeding of the FFC diet induced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Prolonged feeding (6–22 wk) of the FFC diet led to severe hepatic steatosis, glucose intolerance, and mild increases in fasting blood glucose, suggesting progression toward type 2 diabetes, but did not induce β-cell dysfunction. Metabolic changes induced by the diet, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, were cholesterol concentration dependent and were only markedly induced on a high-fructose and high-fat dietary background. There were significant increases in hepatic and plasma triglyceride with FFC feeding, likely due to a 10- to 15-fold induction of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase compared with chow levels (P < 0.03). Hepatic insulin resistance was evident based on reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor-β, IRS-1, and IRS-2 as well as increased protein mass of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. Interestingly, nuclear liver X receptor (LXR) target genes such as ABCA1 were upregulated on the FFC diet, and dietary supplementation with an LXR agonist (instead of dietary cholesterol) worsened dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and upregulation of target mRNA and proteins similar to that of dietary cholesterol. In summary, these data clearly implicate dietary cholesterol, synergistically acting with dietary fat and fructose, as a major determinant of the severity of metabolic disturbances in the hamster model. Dietary cholesterol appears to induce hepatic cholesterol ester and triglyceride accumulation, and diet-induced LXR activation (via cholesterol-derived oxysterols) may possibly be one key underlying mechanism.

  M. J Dekker , Q Su , C Baker , A. C Rutledge and K. Adeli

As dietary exposure to fructose has increased over the past 40 years, there is growing concern that high fructose consumption in humans may be in part responsible for the rising incidence of obesity worldwide. Obesity is associated with a host of metabolic challenges, collectively termed the metabolic syndrome. Fructose is a highly lipogenic sugar that has profound metabolic effects in the liver and has been associated with many of the components of the metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, elevated waist circumference, dyslipidemia, and hypertension). Recent evidence has also uncovered effects of fructose in other tissues, including adipose tissue, the brain, and the gastrointestinal system, that may provide new insight into the metabolic consequences of high-fructose diets. Fructose feeding has now been shown to alter gene expression patterns (such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- coactivator-1/β in the liver), alter satiety factors in the brain, increase inflammation, reactive oxygen species, and portal endotoxin concentrations via Toll-like receptors, and induce leptin resistance. This review highlights recent findings in fructose feeding studies in both human and animal models with a focus on the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that underlie the development of insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and the metabolic syndrome.

  C. G. F de Kovel , H Trucks , I Helbig , H. C Mefford , C Baker , C Leu , C Kluck , H Muhle , S von Spiczak , P Ostertag , T Obermeier , A. A Kleefuss Lie , K Hallmann , M Steffens , V Gaus , K. M Klein , H. M Hamer , F Rosenow , E. H Brilstra , D Kasteleijn Nolst Trenite , M. E. M Swinkels , Y. G Weber , I Unterberger , F Zimprich , L Urak , M Feucht , K Fuchs , R. S Moller , H Hjalgrim , P De Jonghe , A Suls , I. M Ruckert , H. E Wichmann , A Franke , S Schreiber , P Nurnberg , C. E Elger , H Lerche , U Stephani , B. P. C Koeleman , D Lindhout , E. E Eichler and T. Sander

Idiopathic generalized epilepsies account for 30% of all epilepsies. Despite a predominant genetic aetiology, the genetic factors predisposing to idiopathic generalized epilepsies remain elusive. Studies of structural genomic variations have revealed a significant excess of recurrent microdeletions at 1q21.1, 15q11.2, 15q13.3, 16p11.2, 16p13.11 and 22q11.2 in various neuropsychiatric disorders including autism, intellectual disability and schizophrenia. Microdeletions at 15q13.3 have recently been shown to constitute a strong genetic risk factor for common idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes, implicating that other recurrent microdeletions may also be involved in epileptogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the impact of five microdeletions at the genomic hotspot regions 1q21.1, 15q11.2, 16p11.2, 16p13.11 and 22q11.2 on the genetic risk to common idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes. The candidate microdeletions were assessed by high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays in 1234 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy from North-western Europe and 3022 controls from the German population. Microdeletions were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and their breakpoints refined by array comparative genomic hybridization. In total, 22 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (1.8%) carried one of the five novel microdeletions compared with nine controls (0.3%) (odds ratio = 6.1; 95% confidence interval 2.8–13.2; 2 = 26.7; 1 degree of freedom; P = 2.4 x 10–7). Microdeletions were observed at 1q21.1 [Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE)/control: 1/1], 15q11.2 (IGE/control: 12/6), 16p11.2 IGE/control: 1/0, 16p13.11 (IGE/control: 6/2) and 22q11.2 (IGE/control: 2/0). Significant associations with IGEs were found for the microdeletions at 15q11.2 (odds ratio = 4.9; 95% confidence interval 1.8–13.2; P = 4.2 x 10–4) and 16p13.11 (odds ratio = 7.4; 95% confidence interval 1.3–74.7; P = 0.009). Including nine patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy in this cohort with known 15q13.3 microdeletions (IGE/control: 9/0), parental transmission could be examined in 14 families. While 10 microdeletions were inherited (seven maternal and three paternal transmissions), four microdeletions occurred de novo at 15q13.3 (n = 1), 16p13.11 (n = 2) and 22q11.2 (n = 1). Eight of the transmitting parents were clinically unaffected, suggesting that the microdeletion itself is not sufficient to cause the epilepsy phenotype. Although the microdeletions investigated are individually rare (<1%) in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy, they collectively seem to account for a significant fraction of the genetic variance in common idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes. The present results indicate an involvement of microdeletions at 15q11.2 and 16p13.11 in epileptogenesis and strengthen the evidence that recurrent microdeletions at 15q11.2, 15q13.3 and 16p13.11 confer a pleiotropic susceptibility effect to a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  S Papineni , S Chintharlapalli , M Abdelrahim , S. o Lee , R Burghardt , A Abudayyeh , C Baker , L Herrera and S. Safe

The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug tolfenamic acid (TA) inhibits proliferation of SEG-1 and BIC-1 esophageal cancer cells with half-maximal growth inhibitory concentration values of 36 and 48 µM, respectively. TA also increased Annexin V staining in both cell lines, indicative of proapoptotic activity. Treatment of SEG-1 and BIC-1 cells with TA for up to 72 h decreased expression of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 and this was accompanied by decreased expression of the well-characterized Sp-regulated genes cyclin D1, vascular endothelial growth factor and survivin. TA also decreased hepatocyte growth factor receptor, (c-Met), a receptor tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed in esophageal cancer cells and tumors and is an important drug target. Knockdown of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 by RNA interference in SEG-1 and BIC-1 cells also decreased c-Met expression, demonstrating that c-Met is an Sp-regulated gene in esophageal cancer cells. Sp1 was overexpressed in esophageal cancer cells and tumors and increased Sp1 staining was observed in esophageal tumors from patients. TA (20 mg/kg/day) also decreased tumor growth and weight in athymic nude mice bearing SEG-1 cells as xenografts and this was accompanied by increased apoptosis and decreased Sp1 and c-Met staining in tumors from treated mice. Thus, TA-dependent downregulation of Sp transcription factors and c-Met defines a novel chemotherapeutic approach for treatment of esophageal cancer.

  N Kumar , L Dahri , W Brown , N Duncan , S Singh , C Baker , I Malik , A Palmer , M Griffith , T Cairns and D. Taube

Background and objectives: Preemptive transplantation is ideal for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). The practice has been to perform coronary angiography (CA) on all patients aged >50, all diabetics, and all patients with cardiac symptoms or disease with a view to revascularization before transplantation. Historically patients have delayed CA until established on renal replacement therapy due to concerns of precipitating the need for chronic dialysis. The objectives of this study were to establish the risk of contrast nephropathy in patients with advanced CKD who undergo screening CA, and to determine whether or not preemptive transplantation is achievable.

Design and setting: This retrospective analysis included 482 patients with stage IV/V CKD seen in West London predialysis clinics from 2004 to 2007. Seventy-six of 482 (15.8%) patients considered as potential transplant recipients met the authors' criteria for coronary angiography. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) GFR measurements were recorded for the 12 mo preceding and 12 mo following CA unless a defined endpoint was reached (transplantation, dialysis, or death).

Results: Mean MDRD GFR at CA was 12.51 ± 3.51 ml/min. The trend was not significantly different 6 mo pre- and postangiography. Cumulative dialysis-free survival was 89.1% 6 mo postangiography. Twenty-three of 76 (30.3%) patients had flow-limiting coronary artery disease. Twenty-five of 76 (32.9%) patients underwent transplantation with 22 of 25 (88.0%) transplants being performed preemptively.

Conclusions: The data suggest CA screening does not accelerate the decline in renal function for patients with advanced CKD, facilitating a safe preemptive transplant program.

  H. C Mefford , G. M Cooper , T Zerr , J. D Smith , C Baker , N Shafer , E. C Thorland , C Skinner , C. E Schwartz , D. A Nickerson and E. E. Eichler

Copy-number variants (CNVs) are substantial contributors to human disease. A central challenge in CNV-disease association studies is to characterize the pathogenicity of rare and possibly incompletely penetrant events, which requires the accurate detection of rare CNVs in large numbers of individuals. Cost and throughput issues limit our ability to perform these studies. We have adapted the Illumina BeadXpress SNP genotyping assay and developed an algorithm, SNP-Conditional OUTlier detection (SCOUT), to rapidly and accurately detect both rare and common CNVs in large cohorts. This approach is customizable, cost effective, highly parallelized, and largely automated. We applied this method to screen 69 loci in 1105 children with unexplained intellectual disability, identifying pathogenic variants in 3.1% of these individuals and potentially pathogenic variants in an additional 2.3%. We identified seven individuals (0.7%) with a deletion of 16p11.2, which has been previously associated with autism. Our results widen the phenotypic spectrum of these deletions to include intellectual disability without autism. We also detected 1.65–3.4 Mbp duplications at 16p13.11 in 1.1% of affected individuals and 350 kbp deletions at 15q11.2, near the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome critical region, in 0.8% of affected individuals. Compared to published CNVs in controls they are significantly (P = 4.7 x 10–5 and 0.003, respectively) enriched in these children, supporting previously published hypotheses that they are neurocognitive disease risk factors. More generally, this approach offers a previously unavailable balance between customization, cost, and throughput for analysis of CNVs and should prove valuable for targeted CNV detection in both research and diagnostic settings.

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