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Articles by Bujang B.K. Huat
Total Records ( 23 ) for Bujang B.K. Huat
  Mohammad Abdullah , Bujang B.K. Huat , Rezuwan Kamaruddin , Abu Kasim Ali and Youventharan Duraisamy
  The objective of this research project was to find a potential replacement for the conventional pile foundation principally for peat soil. It is fundamentally meant for lightweight and impermanent agricultural farm structures. Preceding the design and development of the foundation the physical characteristics of the in-situ peat such as; peat depth, soil consolidation, soil compressibility, water table, liquid limit, soil moisture content, soil bulk density, loss on ignition, soil bearing capacity and soil shear strength were verified. Two types of foundation designs i.e. single shell and pad foundations were assessed. Both utilized Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) as the footing material. They were conceptually designed as floating foundation employing the weight compensation technique. The soil bearing capacity, soil shear strength, self-load and the lateral wind-load are factors taken into consideration in the footing design. The total design load was considered at 100 kg per foundation. The water table fluctuation, soil surface subsidence, the foundation vertical movement and its stability were constantly monitored. After a scheduled period, the foundations continue to stay intact.
  S.T. Kok and Bujang B.K. Huat
  Design of laterally loaded piles due to soil movement relies on a number of theoretical and numerical approaches. However, the magnitude of soil movement is difficult to estimate with reasonable confidence and accuracy. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) offers an excellent alternative to study pile-soil interaction and pile’s response under lateral loading due to soil movement. This research presents published analytical results and case history modeled in a 2D finite element environment in the case of single pile under a non-linear plain strain condition. Reasonable agreement has been achieved in comparing the single pile’s response against published results of the pile near excavation and in sliding slope.
  Youventharan Duraisamy , Bujang B.K. Huat and Azlan A. Aziz
  This paper presents the engineering properties and compressibility behavior of various types of tropical peat soil collected from several locations in Malaysia. These soils represented fibric, hemic and sapric type of tropical peat with organic content ranging from 70% to 90%. The correlations of the various basic engineering properties of the tropical peat soils have been found to be close and new equations have been established. Loss on ignition (Organic Content) appears to be a very useful parameter for the peat. It correlates well with the natural water content, liquid limit, density and specific gravity. Compressibility behavior of various type of peat soil was measured using Rowe Cell consolidation test for accuracy and conventional oedometer test for comparison purpose. Compressibility index Cc and Cα was identified as two crucial parameters to estimate settlements in peat soil. Parametric study has been carried out at the end of the study to foresee the effect of surcharge on fibric, hemic and sapric peat ground. Based on the results obtained, it shows that fibric peat recorded the highest settlement followed by hemic and sapric peat with increase in consolidation pressure.
  Ratnasamy Muniandy and Bujang B.K. Huat
  Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) is a gap-graded mix that is gaining popularity worldwide. Generally, gap graded mixes are thought to be weak in fatigue resistance. In this study, cellulose fibers were pre-blended in PG64-22 binder with fiber proportions of 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0% by weight of aggregates. The fiber-modified binder showed improved rheological properties and showed that the PG64-22 binder can be modified and raised to PG70-22 grade. The cellulose oil palm fiber (COPF) was found to improve the diameteral fatigue performance of SMA design mix. The fatigue life increased to a maximum at a fiber content of about 0.6%, whilst the tensile stress and stiffness also showed a similar trend in performance. The initial strains of the mix were lowest at a fiber content of 0.6%.
  Faisal Hj. Ali , Bujang B.K. Huat and Lee Sieng Kai
  Strain gauges are normally used to monitor the shortening or compression of pile during static pile load test. For concrete spun pile, the technique used either by incorporating high temperature-resistant strain gauges into the heat-cured production process of the spun piles or by installing an instrumented steel pipe into the hollow core of the spun piles followed by cement grout infilling. The former is extremely unpopular due to high cost of these gauges and the uncertainty over their ability to survive the pile production and driving processes. The shortcoming of the other technique is the infilling of cement grout substantially alters the structural properties of the piles, thus rendering their load-response behaviour significantly different from that of the actual working piles. To address the difficulties of the above techniques a new method was recently developed by the authors, which uses retrieval sensors instead of strain gauges (which have to be sacrificed in every test). The method also has the ability to monitor loads and displacements at various levels along the pile shaft and toe of instrumented piles. Results of field tests show high quality, reliable and consistent data, clearly far exceeding the capability of both conventional and approximate methods of using strain gauges.
  Bujang B.K. Huat , Shukri Maail and Thamer Ahmed Mohamed
  This research describes a study on the effect of chemical (cement and lime) admixtures on the index and engineering properties (compaction and unconfined strength) of tropical peat soils. The ordinary Portland cement and hydrated lime were used. The amounts cement and lime added to the peat soil sample, as percentage of the dry soil mass were in the range of 5-15% and 5-25%, respectively. The results of the study show that the addition of the chemical admixture, cement and lime, can improve the engineering properties of tropical peat soils. The soil liquid limit is found to decrease with increase in the cement and lime content. The soil maximum dry density is found to increase while the optimum water content is found to decrease with increase in the cement and lime content. The unconfined compressive strength of the soil is found to increase significantly with increase in cement and lime content, especially after a long curing period. However it is also found that higher organic content of the soil negate the positive effect of the cement and lime in altering (improving) the mechanical properties of the soil. When comparing the performance of the cement and lime as chemical admixture for tropical peat soil, the ordinary Portland cement appears to perform better than the hydrated lime.
  Bujang B.K. Huat , Faisal Hj. Ali and S. Hashim
  Residual soils occur in most countries of the world but the greater areas and depths are normally found in tropical humid areas. Most of these soils exhibit high suctions for most of the year. The shear strength parameters, c’ and Φ, of soil can be obtained using conventional shear strength tests. However the conventional shear strength test equipments would not be able to measure Φb value (change of shear strength with change in suction) without certain modification to them. This study describes the modifications that have been made to a standard shear box test apparatus to enable it to test soil samples in unsaturated conditions. The modifications include fabrication of an air pressure chamber, modifications of the shear box assembly inside the air pressure chamber, modification to the normal loading system, as well as additions of data acquisition devices to enhance the performance and simplify the usage of the modified shear box test apparatus.
  Bujang B.K. Huat , Afshin Asadi and Sina Kazemian
  Problem statement: Organic soils and peat were believed to be geotechnically problematic due to their very high compressibility, very low shear strength and difficult accessibility. Although conventional soil mechanics theory could be applied to the soils, it was found that important anomalies existed which required special considerations. Correlations between geomechanical parameters for the soils were known to be important for geotechnical engineers to be able to obtain suitable design parameters, as well as to find suitable construction techniques on these soft materials. Approach: To evaluate the geomechanical characteristics of the soils, field and laboratory investigations were carried out according to the organic contents. To achieve such purpose, the soils samples having different organic contents from several locations in Malaysia were collected to determine the correlations of various geomechanical properties of the soils. The classifying tests were determined based on the test procedures according to the British Standard Institution. The compressibility behavior of the soils was determined by Rowe cell consolidation test. Results: The test results indicated that the natural water contents, organic contents, liquid limits, specific gravities and bulk densities ranged from 150-700%, 50-95%, 180-500%, 1.05-1.9 and 0.8-1.2 Mgm-3, respectively. The compression indexes of the soils were higher than Hobbs and Skempton’s approximations. Conclusion/Recommendations: The soils properties were highly dependent on the organic contents. With an increase in organic content, the natural water content, liquid limit, compression index and void ratio increased and the specific gravity and bulk density decreased. Furthermore, the hemic and sapric peat had lower shear strength than the fibrous peat. The first-of-its-kind study was the first step on the road to persuade researchers to improve these problematic soils.
  Behzad Kalantari , Bujang B.K. Huat and Arun Prasad
  Problem statement: Peat soil is well known to deform and fail under a light surcharge load and is characterized with low shear strength, high compressibility and high water content. With the rising demand from the construction industry, utilization of these soils is required and suitable technique needs to be found out for stabilizing them. Approach: Model study had been carried to stabilize peat soil using cement as binding agent and polypropylene fibers as additive. Due to high natural water content of the peat soil, the stabilized peat soil samples were kept at normal room temperature and relative humidity for air curing for 90 days. The improvement in the mechanical strength of the stabilized samples was studied by California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test for both, unsoaked and soaked samples. The water-cement ratio of the samples was measured for 180 days to study the improvement in strength over time. Results: The results of CBR tests showed an increase by a factor over 22 for unsoaked condition and 15 for the soaked condition of the stabilized samples. With the addition of the polypropylene fibers to the stabilized peat soil with cement not only improved the strength of the stabilized peat soil but also contributed to considerable amount of uniformity and intactness to the stabilized peat soil samples. It was also observed that as the curing time for the stabilized peat soil continued through 180 days the moisture content continued to decrease as well. Thus the water-cement (w/c) ratio reduced and as a result of cement hydration, the strength stabilized peat soil samples increased in hardness and gained strength through the curing period. Conclusion/Recommendations: Cement and polypropylene fibers can be used to improve the mechanical strength of the soft peat soil by adopting air curing technique.
  Bujang B.K. Huat , Faisal Hj. Ali and Mariappan S.
  This research describes the design and construction of an artificial rain simulator system and the results obtained with regards to suction-rainfall response of a cut slope in unsaturated residual soil of weathered sandstone of various weathering grades. From the field measurements, the shallow tensiometers are found to record an immediate initial increase in matric suction within the first 20 min of the simulated rain before a gradual drop in suction takes place. However no such initial spikes in suction readings were recorded by the deeper tensiometers. With constant rainfall for the next 130 min, a clear drop in soil suction was observed in all cases illustrating the effect of net infiltration process. Positive pore water pressure was even recorded by some of the deeper tensiometers. The suction recorded by the shallow tensiometers was always higher than those of the deeper tensiometers, indicating a reduction in suction with depth below the ground surface. In term of weathering grades, residual soil of weathered sandstone of weathering grade III has the highest infiltration rate indicating the more porous nature of this soil material. Like wise there is a steeper drop in suction during the rain at the said location.
  Bujang B.K. Huat , Faisal Hj. Ali and A. Abdullah
  Soils located above the groundwater table such as residual soils are generally unsaturated and possess negative pore-water pressures. A soil-water (moisture) characteristic curve (SWCC) that relates the water content of a soil to matric suction is an important relationship for the unsaturated soil mechanics. The SWCC essentially shows the ability of an unsaturated soil to retain water under various matric suctions. It has a similar role as the consolidation curve of a saturated soil that relates void ratio or water content to effective stress. This study describes a study that has been carried in the field and in the laboratory to examine the suction– soil moisture relationship of unsaturated residual soils of granite and sedimentary rocks origin. The field measurement shows a decreasing trend of suction with depth for both soils. The suction–soil moisture relationship shows two distinct curves, a wetting (sorption) curve and a drying (desorption) curve. While from the laboratory study, it is observed that there is a significant decrease in the soil moisture with increasing suction in the lower suction ranges, until a de-saturation or air entry point for both soils. Beyond this point, the magnitude of the decrease in soil moisture for the equal increment of applied suction is less. The de-saturation point of a particular soil appears to be dependent on the amount of clay content. Higher amount of fines in the soil constitute a more compact particle arrangement and a smaller pore size. Soils with smaller pore sizes de-saturate at higher matric suction.
  Faisal Hj. Ali , Bujang B.K. Huat and Low T.H.
  This study presents the result of a field study on the infiltration characteristics of cut a slope in granitic residual soil of various weathering grades. Granitic residual soil of weathering grade IV is found to have the highest infiltration rate. Water infiltration is found to increase from grade VI to IV and decrease from grade IV to grade III. Water infiltration is found to increase with the increase in soil porosity and void ratio.
  Bujang B.K. Huat and Jamaludin S.
  A slope assessment is to estimate the probability of occurrence and likely severity of landslides in a given area. This study evaluates two existing Slope Assessment Systems (SAS) for predicting landslide at the micro level of assessment developed by the Public Works Department of Malaysia, namely the Slope Information Management System (SIMS) and the Slope Management and Risk Tracking System (SMART). From the results of this study, it appears that none of the existing SAS is satisfactory for predicting landslide in granitic formation, for various reasons such as the use of hazard score developed from another country and use of data-base derived from different rock formation. A new SAS was developed using nine-parameters equation that was based on the stepwise discriminant analysis. The new SAS appears to show a good capability in predicting landslides in granitic formations.
  Suhaimi Jamaludin , Bujang B.K. Huat and Husaini Omar
  In Malaysia, slope assessment systems (SAS) are widely used in assessing the instability of slope or the probability of occurrence and the likely severity of landslides. These SAS can be derived based on either one particular approach or combination of several approaches of landslide assessments and prediction. This study overviews four slope assessment systems (SAS) developed in Malaysia for predicting landslide at a large-scale assessments. They are the Slope Maintenance System (SMS), Slope Priority Ranking System (SPRS), Slope Information Management System (SIMS) and the Slope Management and Risk Tracking System (SMART). An attempt is made to evaluate the accuracy of the SAS in predicting landslides based on slope inventory data from 139 cut slopes in granitic formation and 47 cut slopes in meta-sediment formation, which are the two most common rock/soil formations found in Malaysia. Based on this study, it was found that none of existing SAS is satisfactory in predicting landslides of cut slopes in granitic formation, for various reasons such as the use of hazard score developed from another country, insufficient data base, oversimplified approach and use of data base derived from different rock/soil formations. However for the case of cut slope in meta-sediment, the Slope Management and Risk Tracking System (SMART) was found to be satisfactory with 90% prediction accuracy. The current database of SMART is largely based on meta-sediment formation.
  Thamer Ahmed Mohamed , Faisal Hj. Ali , S. Hashim and Bujang B.K. Huat
  Shear strength parameters are crucial for stability analyses of slopes against slope failures and landslides. The three shear strength parameters that are required to define a failure envelope of an unsaturated soil are c’ (apparent cohesion), Ø’ (effective angle of friction) and Øb (shear strength change with change in matric suction). A soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) that relates the water content of a soil to matric suction is another important relationship for the unsaturated soil mechanics. The SWCC essentially shows the ability of an unsaturated soil to retain water under various matric suctions. This study concentrates on the shear strength-SWCC relationship that has been carried out on an unsaturated granitic residual soil. It is observed that the failure envelope of an unsaturated soil is non-linear due to the non-linear soil water characteristic curve (SWCC). At low matric suctions, where the suction is lower than the air-entry value of the soil, the soil is at or near saturation condition and behave as though it was saturated. Consequently an increase in matric suction produces the same increase in shear strength as does an increase in net normal stress. However, at matric suctions higher than the air-entry value of the soil, the soil starts to desaturate. The increase in shear strength with respect to matric suction becomes less than the increase with respect to the net normal stress.
  Bujang B.K. Huat , Faisal Hj. Ali and R.S.K. Rajoo
  In tropical residual soils most hill slope failures are caused by rainfall. It is therefore important to consider dynamic hydrological conditions when attempting to analyze the stability of residual soil slopes. This paper describes a coupled hydrology/stability model that has been developed to overcome the limitations of the standard method of analysis used to investigate stability of tropical soil slopes. A computational hydrology – limit equilibrium stability analysis model is outlined and examples are provided of the model output capabilities in terms of design charts. Although nowadays most realistic problem should be analyzed by computer and stability charts are mainly used to analyze simple slopes, they can be useful for preliminary analysis and enable the designer to quickly assess the sensitivity of a problem to changes in different input parameters.
  Azlan A. Aziz , Faisal Hj. Ali , Choong Foong Heng , Thamer Ahmed Mohammed and Bujang B.K. Huat
  Residual soils occur in most countries of the world but the greater areas and depths are normally found in tropical humid areas. In these places, the soil forming processes are still very active and the weathering development is much faster than the erosive factor. Most residual soil exhibit high suctions for most of the year. The absence of positive pore water pressure except immediately after rain, makes conventional soil mechanics for saturated soil not so relevant. Ignorance or lack of understanding of the geotechnical behavior of soil in the partially or unsaturated state has caused a lot of damages to infrastructures, buildings and other structures. For instance, the collapsibility and volume change of partially saturated soils in connection with the drying or wetting causes a lot of damage in foundation, roads and other structures. It is also observed that many shallow slope failures involve a slumping (collapse) type of failure. As such, the development of extended soil mechanics, which embraces the soil in the unsaturated state or subjected to soil suction, is essential. This study examines the collapsibility and volume change behavior specifically of an unsaturated residual soil under various levels of applied matric suction (ua-uw) and net mean stress (σ-ua) in a predetermined stress path. The volume change of the soil is found to be sensitive to both the applied matric suction and net mean stress. The soil is found to exhibit a collapsibility behavior upon a reduction in applied matric suction at constant net mean stress.
  Youventharan Duraisamy , Bujang B.K. Huat and Azlan A. Aziz
  This paper discusses some of the methods and recent technologies in utilizing cheap marginal land such as tropical peat for housing scheme. Buildings on peat are usually suspended on piles, but ground around it may still settle. Therefore a suitable method of construction should be tackle to overcome serious problem such as localized sinking and slip failure, massive primary and long term (creep) settlement. With the ever increase in the cost of living and the decrease in suitable land for construction, avoidance of marginal tropical peat soil is never going to be the popular choice among the developers and town planners. This paper gives some insights on the construction methods that could be possibly employed to develop marginal ground such as tropical peat soil.
  Faisal Hj Ali , Bujang B.K. Huat and Lee Chee Hai
  The finite element model is used to simulate the behavior of the full scale instrumented anchored reinforced wall. The validated finite element model is then used to carry out parametric studies to ascertain the influence of the boundary conditions on the behavior of the wall. The boundaries at the crest, facing and base of the wall are varied to study their effects. At the crest of the wall, slope surcharge of various geometrical dimensions are imposed. At the facing of the wall, the boundary is allowed to yield laterally by inserting a compressible geoinclusion at the back face of the wall panels. Meanwhile, at the base, the boundary is allowed to yield vertically by allowing the wall to sit on a compressible foundation soil. The behavior of the wall is determined in terms of the tensile stress distribution developed in the reinforcing bars, the summation of the maximum tension in the reinforcing bars, the summation of the tensions developed at the connection to the facing panels, the lateral movement at the facing and the vertical movement at the base.
  Faisal Hj Ali , Bujang B.K. Huat and Lee Chee Hai
  Since the invention of Reinforced Earth by the French architect Hendri Vidal in 1966, numerous reinforced soil walls have been designed and constructed all over the world. In this study the focus was on a particular type of reinforced wall called Nehemiah wall which differed from the Vidal type in the sense that instead of steel strips, the reinforcing elements consisted of steel bars with anchor blocks attached at the free ends. A full scale high anchored reinforced earth wall was constructed and instrumented to capture the essential behavior of the wall. Two sections of the wall were monitored where at one of the sections polystyrene foam was inserted at the back face of the wall panel to allow for lateral deformation to take place which means that the facing was less flexible in the transverse direction. The lateral deformation, axial forces along the reinforcing bars and settlement were monitored and measured for both cases and the results were compared and discussed.
  Bujang B.K. Huat , Asmidar Alias and Azlan Abdul Aziz
  Soil stabilization has been widely used as an alternative to substitute the lacking of suitable materials on site. Guidelines and standards have been developed to assist practitioners in designing structures such as road by mean of stabilization. This paper presents the results of an investigation aimed at evaluating and assessing the suitable guidelines for the stabilization of tropical residual soils. Two types of tropical residual soils namely granite residual and sedimentary residual soil were tested by using conventional methods practiced in Malaysiaand two guidelines, namely the TRL and PWD were evaluated. From the results of this study, it appeared that the TRL gave a simplified and satisfactory route in selection of suitable binder for the stabilization processes of tropical residual soils.
  Afshin Asadi , Bujang B.K. Huat , M.M. Hassim , Thamer A. Mohamed , M.M. Hanafi and Nader Shariatmadari
  Organic soils or peat represent an accumulation of disintegrated plant remains which have been preserved under condition of incomplete aeration and high water content. In order to develop a fundamental understanding of electroosmotic phenomena in peat, initially microelectrophoresis studies were carried out to conceptualize the electrokinetic phenomena. Then electroosmosis experiments were conducted on rigid cube samples containing 0.0001 M NaCl-water saturated peat. The open-anode and open-cathode systems were employed to the soil samples. Distilled Water (DW) were used as anolyte and catholyte. The experiments were carried out via applications of diffrent DC electrical potentials. The results of microelectrophoresis study showed changes of zeta potential due to the effect of HCl and NaOH. The correlations between zeta potential and pH were found. The negative charge of peat is high pH dependent and the surface charge was dropped to zero at pH around 3. The high degree of decomposition resulted in the higher zeta potential in peat. It was also experimentally found that the electroosmotic flow in peat is feasible. The direction of electroosmotic flows were from the anode to cathode.
  Bujang B.K. Huat and Thamer A. Mohammed
  This study describes a study on the geotechnical behavior of shell footing using a non-linear finite element analysis with a finite element code, PLAXIS. The shell footing is found to have a better load carrying capacity compared with the conventional slab/flat footing of similar cross sectional area. The FE analysis also showed a reasonably good agreement with the laboratory experimental results. The effect of adding edge beams at the bottom of the shell footings has been studied numerically and found to be beneficial in increasing the load carrying capacity of the footing. The effect of increasing the embedment ratio is found to increase the load carrying capacity of the shell footings.
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