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Articles by Bianca R. Mothe
Total Records ( 2 ) for Bianca R. Mothe
  Arne Schneidewind , Mark A. Brockman , John Sidney , Yaoyu E. Wang , Huabiao Chen , Todd J. Suscovich , Bin Li , Rahma I. Adam , Rachel L. Allgaier , Bianca R. Mothe , Thomas Kuntzen , Cesar Oniangue-Ndza , Alicja Trocha , Xu G. Yu , Christian Brander , Alessandro Sette , Bruce D. Walker and Todd M. Allen
  Control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by HLA-B27-positive subjects has been linked to an immunodominant CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response targeting the conserved KK10 epitope (KRWIILGLNK263-272) in p24/Gag. Viral escape in KK10 typically occurs through development of an R264K substitution in conjunction with the upstream compensatory mutation S173A, and the difficulty of the virus to escape from the immune response against the KK10 epitope until late in infection has been associated with slower clinical progression. Rare alternative escape mutations at R264 have been observed, but factors dictating the preferential selection of R264K remain unclear. Here we illustrate that while all observed R264 mutations (K, G, Q, and T) reduced peptide binding to HLA-B27 and impaired viral replication, the replicative defects of the alternative mutants were actually less pronounced than those for R264K. Importantly, however, none of these mutants replicated as well as an R264K variant containing the compensatory mutation S173A. In assessing the combined effects of viral replication and CTL escape using an in vitro coculture assay, we further observed that the compensated R264K mutant also displayed the highest replication capacity in the presence of KK10-specific CTLs. Comparisons of codon usage for the respective variants indicated that generation of the R264K mutation may also be favored due to a G-to-A bias in nucleotide substitutions during HIV-1 replication. Together, these data suggest that the preference for R264K is due primarily to the ability of the S173A-compensated virus to replicate better than alternative variants in the presence of CTLs, suggesting that viral fitness is a key contributor for the selection of immune escape variants.
  Courtney Dow , Carla Oseroff , Bjoern Peters , Courtney Nance-Sotelo , John Sidney , Michael Buchmeier , Alessandro Sette and Bianca R. Mothe
  Activation of CD4+ T cells helps establish and sustain other immune responses. We have previously shown that responses against a broad set of nine CD4+ T-cell epitopes were present in the setting of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) Armstrong infection in the context of H-2d. This is quite disparate to the H-2b setting, where only two epitopes have been identified. We were interested in determining whether a broad set of responses was unique to H-2d or whether additional CD4+ T-cell epitopes could be identified in the setting of the H-2b background. To pursue this question, we infected C57BL/6 mice with LCMV Armstrong and determined the repertoire of CD4+ T-cell responses using overlapping 15-mer peptides corresponding to the LCMV Armstrong sequence. We confirmed positive responses by intracellular cytokine staining and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide binding assays. A broad repertoire of responses was identified, consisting of six epitopes. These epitopes originate from the nucleoprotein (NP) and glycoprotein (GP). Out of the six newly identified CD4+ epitopes, four of them also stimulate CD8+ T cells in a statistically significant manner. Furthermore, we assessed these CD4+ T-cell responses during the memory phase of LCMV Armstrong infection and after infection with a chronic strain of LCMV and determined that a subset of the responses could be detected under these different conditions. This is the first example of a broad repertoire of shared epitopes between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the context of viral infection. These findings demonstrate that immunodominance is a complex phenomenon in the context of helper responses.
 
 
 
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