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Articles by Barton F. Haynes
Total Records ( 5 ) for Barton F. Haynes
  Dan Huang , Yun Shen , Liyou Qiu , Crystal Y. Chen , Ling Shen , Jim Estep , Robert Hunt , Daphne Vasconcelos , George Du , Pyone Aye , Andrew A. Lackner , Michelle H. Larsen , William R. Jacobs Jr. , Barton F. Haynes , Norman L. Letvin and Zheng W. Chen
  Little is known about the immune distribution and localization of antigen-specific T cells in mucosal interfaces of tissues/organs during infection of humans. In this study, we made use of a macaque model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to assess phosphoantigen-specific Vγ2Vδ2 T cells regarding their tissue distribution, anatomical localization, and correlation with the presence or absence of tuberculosis (TB) lesions in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs/tissues in the progression of severe pulmonary TB. Progression of pulmonary M. tuberculosis infection generated diverse distribution patterns of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, with remarkable accumulation of these cells in lungs, bronchial lymph nodes, spleens, and remote nonlymphoid organs but not in blood. Increased numbers of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in tissues were associated with M. tuberculosis infection but were independent of the severity of TB lesions. In lungs with apparent TB lesions, Vγ2Vδ2 T cells were present within TB granulomas. In extrathoracic organs, Vγ2Vδ2 T cells were localized in the interstitial compartment of nonlymphoid tissues, and the interstitial localization was present despite the absence of detectable TB lesions. Finally, Vγ2Vδ2 T cells accumulated in tissues appeared to possess cytokine production function, since granzyme B was detectable in the γδ T cells present within granulomas. Thus, clonally expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T cells appeared to undergo trans-endothelial migration, interstitial localization, and granuloma infiltration as immune responses to M. tuberculosis infection.
  S. Munir Alam , Richard M. Scearce , Robert J. Parks , Kelly Plonk , Steven G. Plonk , Laura L. Sutherland , Miroslaw K. Gorny , Susan Zolla-Pazner , Stacie VanLeeuwen , M. Anthony Moody , Shi-Mao Xia , David C. Montefiori , Georgia D. Tomaras , Kent J. Weinhold , Salim Abdool Karim , Charles B. Hicks , Hua-Xin Liao , James Robinson , George M. Shaw and Barton F. Haynes
  Two human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (2F5 and 4E10) against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope g41 cluster II membrane proximal external region (MPER) broadly neutralize HIV-1 primary isolates. However, these antibody specificities are rare, are not induced by Env immunization or HIV-1 infection, and are polyspecific and also react with lipids such as cardiolipin or phosphatidylserine. To probe MPER anti-gp41 antibodies that are produced in HIV-1 infection, we have made two novel murine MAbs, 5A9 and 13H11, against HIV-1 gp41 envelope that partially cross-blocked 2F5 MAb binding to Env but did not neutralize HIV-1 primary isolates or bind host lipids. Competitive inhibition assays using labeled 13H11 MAb and HIV-1-positive patient plasma samples demonstrated that cluster II 13H11-blocking plasma antibodies were made in 83% of chronically HIV-1 infected patients and were acquired between 5 to 10 weeks after acute HIV-1 infection. Both the mouse 13H11 MAb and the three prototypic cluster II human MAbs (98-6, 126-6, and 167-D) blocked 2F5 binding to gp41 epitopes to variable degrees; the combination of 98-6 and 13H11 completely blocked 2F5 binding. These data provide support for the hypothesis that in some patients, B cells make nonneutralizing cluster II antibodies that may mask or otherwise down-modulate B-cell responses to immunogenic regions of gp41 that could be recognized by B cells capable of producing antibodies like 2F5.
  Jesus F. Salazar-Gonzalez , Elizabeth Bailes , Kimmy T. Pham , Maria G. Salazar , M. Brad Guffey , Brandon F. Keele , Cynthia A. Derdeyn , Paul Farmer , Eric Hunter , Susan Allen , Olivier Manigart , Joseph Mulenga , Jeffrey A. Anderson , Ronald Swanstrom , Barton F. Haynes , Gayathri S. Athreya , Bette T. M. Korber , Paul M. Sharp , George M. Shaw and Beatrice H. Hahn
  Accurate identification of the transmitted virus and sequences evolving from it could be instrumental in elucidating the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and in developing vaccines, drugs, or microbicides to prevent infection. Here we describe an experimental approach to analyze HIV-1 env genes as intact genetic units amplified from plasma virion RNA by single-genome amplification (SGA), followed by direct sequencing of uncloned DNA amplicons. We show that this strategy precludes in vitro artifacts caused by Taq-induced nucleotide substitutions and template switching, provides an accurate representation of the env quasispecies in vivo, and has an overall error rate (including nucleotide misincorporation, insertion, and deletion) of less than 8 x 10–5. Applying this method to the analysis of virus in plasma from 12 Zambian subjects from whom samples were obtained within 3 months of seroconversion, we show that transmitted or early founder viruses can be identified and that molecular pathways and rates of early env diversification can be defined. Specifically, we show that 8 of the 12 subjects were each infected by a single virus, while 4 others acquired more than one virus; that the rate of virus evolution in one subject during an 80-day period spanning seroconversion was 1.7 x 10–5 substitutions per site per day; and that evidence of strong immunologic selection can be seen in Env and overlapping Rev sequences based on nonrandom accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations. We also compared the results of the SGA approach with those of more-conventional bulk PCR amplification methods performed on the same patient samples and found that the latter is associated with excessive rates of Taq-induced recombination, nucleotide misincorporation, template resampling, and cloning bias. These findings indicate that HIV-1 env genes, other viral genes, and even full-length viral genomes responsible for productive clinical infection can be identified by SGA analysis of plasma virus sampled at intervals typical in large-scale vaccine trials and that pathways of viral diversification and immune escape can be determined accurately.
  Nancy Gasper-Smith , Deanna M. Crossman , John F. Whitesides , Nadia Mensali , Janet S. Ottinger , Steven G. Plonk , M. Anthony Moody , Guido Ferrari , Kent J. Weinhold , Sara E. Miller , Charles F. Reich , Li Qin , Stephen G. Self , George M. Shaw , Thomas N. Denny , Laura E. Jones , David S. Pisetsky and Barton F. Haynes
  The death of CD4+ CCR5+ T cells is a hallmark of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We studied the plasma levels of cell death mediators and products—tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), Fas ligand, TNF receptor type 2 (TNFR-2), and plasma microparticles—during the earliest stages of infection following HIV type 1 (HIV-1) transmission in plasma samples from U.S. plasma donors. Significant plasma TRAIL level elevations occurred a mean of 7.2 days before the peak of plasma viral load (VL), while TNFR-2, Fas ligand, and microparticle level elevations occurred concurrently with maximum VL. Microparticles had been previously shown to mediate immunosuppressive effects on T cells and macrophages. We found that T-cell apoptotic microparticles also potently suppressed in vitro immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibody production by memory B cells. Thus, release of TRAIL during the onset of plasma viremia (i.e., the eclipse phase) in HIV-1 transmission may initiate or amplify early HIV-1-induced cell death. The window of opportunity for a HIV-1 vaccine is from the time of HIV-1 transmission until establishment of the latently infected CD4+ T cells. Release of products of cell death and subsequent immunosuppression following HIV-1 transmission could potentially narrow the window of opportunity during which a vaccine is able to extinguish HIV-1 infection and could place severe constraints on the amount of time available for the immune system to respond to the transmitted virus.
  Mei-Yun Zhang , Bang K. Vu , Anil Choudhary , Hong Lu , Michael Humbert , Helena Ong , Munir Alam , Ruth M. Ruprecht , Gerald Quinnan , Shibo Jiang , David C. Montefiori , John R. Mascola , Christopher C. Broder , Barton F. Haynes and Dimiter S. Dimitrov
  Broadly cross-reactive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-neutralizing antibodies are infrequently elicited in infected humans. The two best-characterized gp41-specific cross-reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies, 4E10 and 2F5, target linear epitopes in the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) and bind to cardiolipin and several other autoantigens. It has been hypothesized that, because of such reactivity to self-antigens, elicitation of 2F5 and 4E10 and similar antibodies by vaccine immunogens based on the MPER could be affected by tolerance mechanisms. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a novel anti-gp41 monoclonal antibody, designated m44, which neutralized most of the 22 HIV type 1 (HIV-1) primary isolates from different clades tested in assays based on infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by replication-competent virus but did not bind to cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a Biacore assay nor to any protein or DNA autoantigens tested in Luminex assays. m44 bound to membrane-associated HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs), to recombinant Envs lacking the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail (gp140s), and to gp41 structures containing five-helix bundles and six-helix bundles, but not to N-heptad repeat trimers, suggesting that the C-heptad repeat is involved in m44 binding. In contrast to 2F5, 4E10, and Z13, m44 did not bind to any significant degree to denatured gp140 and linear peptides derived from gp41, suggesting a conformational nature of the epitope. This is the first report of a gp41-specific cross-reactive HIV-1-neutralizing human antibody that does not have detectable reactivity to autoantigens. Its novel conserved conformational epitope on gp41 could be helpful in the design of vaccine immunogens and as a target for therapeutics.
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